Culinary Dictionary

by Dr. Chef Soundar

Dr. Chef P Soundararajan, (Corporate Executive Chef) handcrafted this Culinary Dictionary with his profound knowledge and 32 years of professional experience as a chef. He gives a brief and unique definition for every word here.
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NameDescriptionOrigin    
ABERDEEN/
ARBROATH/
SMOKIES
A Scottish specialty, the Abroath or Aberdeen smokies are small haddocks split, gutted, closed again and smoked whole with the back bone intact. The cooking time for a smokie is usually about 30 - 40 minutes Golden brown and headless, the flesh is creamy with a savoury flavour. Smokies are best eaten straight off the barrel however they may also be buttered outside and inside and lightly grilled or warmed in the oven. Smokies can be refrigerated for upto 7 days or frozen for upto 3 months if packed and stored properly.
CA MARCHTo let the chefs' know that an order is to follow.
CABBAGEcomes from the French word caboche, a colloquial term for head. The most common cabbage is the tight leafed compact head that ranges in colour from white to red although there are many other types of cabbage varying in size in shape worth trying.
CABERNET-SAUVIGNONA superior red wine made from small, thin-skinned black grapes cultivated in France and California. These are used to produce the fine Clarets of France and the Cabernets of California.
CABREIRO CHEESEMade in Portugal from the mixture of ewe and goat milk. When fresh and young, it is delicate but becomes very sharp and pungent when aged.
CABRINNETI CHEESEDelicate, soft dessert cheese from Denmark.
CABRION CHEESEGoat's milk cheese, made in France, soaked in distilled beverage and ripened between layers of grape skins.
CACCIATOREBlack or green olives, Italian wine, mushrooms cooked with meat or game dishes - basically a hunters dish.ITALY
CACCIATOREThe Italian word for'hunter'refers to food prepared'hunter-style', with mushrooms,onions, tomatoes, herbs and sometimes wine. Chicken cacciatore is the most popular.
CACCIUCCOItalian seafood stew.
CACHAT CHEESESheep or goat's milk cheese, produced from France. Soft, creamy but with an assertive flavor. Sometimes blended with brandy or wine.
CACIOCAVALLO CHEESEFrom Italy,firm, buttery with a light brown exterior and smoky flavor. Becomes hard when aged. While ripening, it is rubbed with olive oil and butter and hung from rafters.
CAERPHILLY CHEESECreamy white Welsh or English cheese. Mild, delicate, semisoft to semifirm.
CAFE AU LAITCoffee with milk.
CAFE BRULOTA mixture of spiced, strong black coffee, flambed with cognac.
CAFE CON LECHESpanish coffee with milk and sugar.
CAFE SUA DAA Vietnamese iced milk coffee.
CAFFEINEAlkaloid substance found in tea and coffee; acts as a mild stimulant.
CAFREALThe principal ingredient is marinated in a paste made from chilies, lime juice, coriander leaves, mint leaves and spices, then either deep fried, barbecued or roasted.INDIA - GOAN
CAILLETEA faggot made of liver, meat, herbs, etc.
CAIMITOA very interesting fruit which comes in various colours - green, purple, rose,white or yellow with star shaped seeds inside. Also called 'Star Apple', it is a native of West Indies.
CAIPRISSIMABacardi, chopped lime wedge and sugar syrup.
CAJUNForm of cooking that is a combination of French and southern cuisines.
CAJUN BLACKENING SPICEBlack pepper, dried thyme, garlic, onion powder, oregano, paprika, sea salt, sweet paprika and white pepper powder.
CALABACITAA variety of summer squash found in Mexican cooking.
CALABACITASCourgettes cooked with onion, garlic, tomatoes and chillies.
CALABASH-A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called'bottle gourd'.
CALABASH-Looks like an apple with a thin yellow-brown skin and is a variety of passion fruit native to Central America and the Caribbean.
CALABASH-In Southern cuisine breaded or battered fried fish is called Calabash.
CALABRESEType of broccoli, bluish green with compact flowers.
CALAMARIThe Italian word for squid.
CALAMARIThis ten-armed cephalopod, commonly known as 'squid', is related to the octopus. The meat is firm and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavour. Over-cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.
CALAMONDINA citrus fruit, look like small orange or lime.
CALAZONEliterally means "stuffed stocking" - A fold over pizza stuffed with cheese and meat.ITALY
CALCIUMA mineral required for the building of healthy bones and teeth.
CALDO VERDE-Green soup with different vegetables.INDIA - GOAN
CALDO VERDE-Portuguese soup made from cabbage, potatoes and sausage.INDIA - GOAN
CALDRONA large metal pot (kettle) for cooking over an open fire, with a large mouth and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger.
CALF/LAMBYoung member of bovine family, approximately 3-8 months old.
CALIENTEThis is the Spanish word for "hot" and it refers to temperature.
CALIPASHThe fatty meat from the upper shell of the turtle, nowdays obtained in canned or dried form.
CALLALOOSoup with callaloo leaves, vegetables, salt, pork, coconut milk and spices.
CALORIE-Unit of energy used to denote nutritional values of food now called a kilocalorie, which is the amount of raise the temperature of 1kg water by 1degree C.?
CALORIE-The unit of energy used to denote nutritional values of food is called a kilocalorie, which is the amount required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1degree celsius.
CALVADOS-An apple brandy
CALVADOS-Apple brandy distilled from cider in Normandy, France. The best Calvados is golden brown in colour.
CALYPSO COFFEECoffee with Tia Maria.
CALZONEA half-moon shaped pizza turnover, often served with sauce over the top rather than inside.
CAMBRIDGE SAUCEMixed with pounded boiled egg, anchovy fillet, capers, chervil, tarragon, chives,vinegar, cayenne pepper and parsley.
CAMELLIA SINENSISThe botanical name of the plant from which tea is derived.
CAMEMBERT CHEESEA French cheese. Mild to pungent, edible crust, creamy yellow.
CAN STOCK PHOTOcan stock photo
CANADIAN WHITEThick, protein-rich sliced sandwich bread.CHINA / Canada
CANAPE-Small open sandwich- small slice of bread cut into various shapes , plain,?toasted or fried, spread and garnished, served as an appetizer or cocktail snack.
CANAPE-Small toasted or untoasted pieces of bread, crackers or pastry topped with a savoury morsel such as cheese, anchovy or some kind of spread. These can be hot or cold, simple or elaborate.
CANDENASBox containing the personal cutlery of a nobleman in medieval times.
CANDYINGThe nuts are frosted by cooling with bitten egg white, dusting in castor sugar and drying them.
CANE SYRUPThick, extremely sweet syrup made from the sugar cane.?
CANELONESsmall stuffed rolls of pastry or rice.
CANESTRATO CHEESESicilian cheese made of ewe's milk, ripened, then aged. Bright yellow with a pungent flavoured.
CANH CHUASour fish and vegetable soup from Vietnam.
CANJAPortuguese chicken and pasta soup flavoured with lemon and parsley.
CANNELLINIVariety of pasta: White kidney beans, which are oval-shaped and dried, are called Cannellini in Italian. Also known as haricot beans.
CANNELLINI BEANA large white Italian kidney bean.
CANNELLONILarge tubes of pasta; which are stuffed and served in a sauce, also the name of the dish.A tubular pasta filled with meat, cheese or fish, which is sauced and baked.
CANNELLONIVariety of pasta: cylindrical stuffed.
CANNOLIA crisp pastry tube filled with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and candied fruit. Cinnamon and vanilla are common flavourings for this cheese mixture.
CANOLA OILThe market name for rapeseed oil. Low in saturated fat and it has more mono saturated fat than any oil other than olive oil as well as Omega-3 fatty acids... thought to help lower cholesterol.
CANTAL CHEESEFrench, cow's milk cheese. Rich, savory, semiform with a golden color.
CANTALOUPELarge netted type of melon with light orange flesh.
CANTONESEA type of Chinese cuisine that is famous for its meat roasting and grilling, fried rice, bird?s nest soup and shark fin soup.
CAPALINType of caviar obtained from a small member of the salmon family found in the Arctic Ocean.
CAPANTOcapanto
CAPELLI D ANGELOVariety of pasta: the finest cut angel-hair.
CAPELLINIVariety of pasta: fine vermicelli.
CAPERThe pickled bud from the caper bush which is used in sauces and as condiments for smoked fish and Nicosia salad.
CAPER SAUCEButter sauce and chopped capers.
CAPERCAILLIELarge game bird of the grouse family, now farm-reared in Scotland.
CAPERSTiny pickled buds of a plant.
CAPICOLLAA coarse Italian pork sausage. Usually highly seasoned, this sausage is served cold, thinly sliced, as for prosciutto.
CAPILLAIREVariety of fern that used to be used to flavour stock syrup.
CAPILOTADEa kind of hashed (ragout/stew) game or chicken.
CAPONChicken that has been fattened by being castrated which causes it to put on weight.
CAPONATAStew of onion, eggplant, tomato, pimento, celery and olives, similar to ratatouille.Salad of eggplant, celery, tomatoes, raisins and pine nuts.
CAPPUCCINOItalian coffee, prepared with espresso, hot milk,milk foam and cinnamon powder.
CAPRICE COCKTAILDry Gin, Benedictine, Dry vermouth and orange bitters.
CAPSICUMAnother name for pimento or pepper; available as green, yellow, red and white.
CARAFEA glass container used to serve wine, coffee, water or other beverages at the table, usually in litre and half-litre sizes and generally without a lid, cork or other stopper.
CARAMBOLA-Star fruit
CARAMBOLA-A golden tropical fruit, also known as star fruit, because of its shape when cut across the grain. It has juicy flesh and tastes like a combination of plums, grapes and apples.
CARAMELwater and sugar boiled together and reduced to make a golden brown toffee.
CARAMELISEThe process through which natural sugars in foods become browned and flavourful while cooking. This is usually done over a constant low to medium-low heat. Caramelisation can be quickened with the addition of a little sugar. Either way, be careful not to burn the food.
CARAMELIZEto cook to release natural sugars, or until reaching brown color
CARAMELIZEDCooking the sugar till it develops a dark brownish color.
CARAQUEThinly spread melted chocolate, allowed to set and scraped into curls for cake decoration.
CARAWAYSmall, brown, long and thin seeds that look like cumin or celery seeds.
CARBOHYDRATEA nutrient which has three main groups; sugar, starch and cellulose
CARBON DIOXIDEA gas produced by all raising agents
CARBONARAItalian term that refers to a pasta dish of spaghetti or other noodles with a sauce or cream, eggs, parmesan cheese and bits of bacon. Fresh green peas are sometimes used to add flavor and colour.
CARBONNADEbraised steak.
CARBOONVegetable of the thistle family, similar to leek and celery.
CARCASSSlaughtered, eviscerated animal.
CARCASSEBone structure without the meat.
CARDAMOMAromatic spice, small green pod with black seeds inside .member of the ginger family.
CARDINAL SAUCELobster sauce made with truffles, diced lobster, lobster butter, cayenne pepper and fish stock.
CARDOONResembles a large bunch of wide, flat celery.
CAREMEHam forcemeat Madeira Sauce.
CARIGNAN SAUCETomato-flavoured demi-glace finished with port wine.
CARISSAAlso known as Natal plum, it is two inches long and is a native of South Africa.
CARNEMeat.MEXICAN
CARNE ASADABeef or pork cut into thin diagonal strips and cooked quickly over a very hot fire.
CARNE MOLIDACRUDALiterally meat ground raw.
CAROBComes from the fruit of the carob or tamarind tree. Its flavour and colour are similar to cocoa or chocolate. Since carob has less fat than chocolate, it is often used as a dietetic alternative.
CAROTENOIDThe yellow and orange pigment in carrots and pumpkins.
CARPACCIO-Shavings of raw meat fillet, drizzled with olive oil and served with capers, mustard or mayonnaise sauce.ITALY
CARPACCIO-Italian appetizer made from paper thin slices of chilled raw fillet or fish marinated in lemon juice and olive oil.ITALY
CARPETBAG STEAKDouble sirloin steak cut open to form a pocket into which raw oyster are placed before being grilled.
CARRAGEENPurple-coloured seaweed used as a substitute for gelatine; also called Irish moss.
CARRAQUEScroll flakes of dark chocolate obtained by pouring a thin layer of chocolate on a smooth surface and spread with a palette knife until it sets.
CARRE-Rack of lamb or veal
CARRE-Cut into Square.
CARRE-Delicious small squares of chocolate with varying amounts of cocoa.
CARRE DE L EST CHEESEFrench. Known as a cross between Brie and Camembert. The crust may also be eaten unless it is coloured deep yellow or orange.
CARRELETFlounder.
CARTE DU JOURDaily menu of the table d?h?te type, priced by the meal, not the dish.
CARURUBrazilian stew made with dried shrimps, okra, tomatoes and palm nut oil.
CASEINThe protein in milk solidifies, which curdles or coagulates into cheese through the action of rennet.
CASERA CHEESEMade in Turkey or Greece. Goat' s milk cheese, salty and crumbly. Sharp, firm and similar in flavor to Fontina. When young, soft enough to spread, when aged, firm and zesty.
CASHEW NUTSCrescent shaped nuts usually served an appetised.
CASHKAVALLO CHEESEThe Balkan versions of the Italian cheese.
CASSATACream ices of various flavours containing candied fruits macerated in maraschino and chopped nuts, set in an oblong mould.
CASSATADifferent layers of multiple flavors of rich ice cream made with nuts and fruits with pastry crust.ITALY
CASSAVARoot of a tropical bush ground and refined as a staple food of the West Indies and Africa; the residue is made into tapioca.
CASSEROLE-An earthenware dish having a lid, usually cooked in it.
CASSEROLE-Refers to both a baking dish and its contents.
CASSONADESoft brown sugar as used for coffee to which it gives a slightly spicy flavour.
CASSOULET-A stew of beans baked with pork or other meats, duck or goose confit, and seasonings.
CASSOULET-Classic stew from southwest France, consists of beans and a verity of meats.
CASTLETON PLUMThe fruit is blue, round, and similar in appearance to Stanley.
CATIMNUONGAubergines cooked with lime.
CAULMembrane that covers an animal's intestine, used for covering cromesquis, faggots, etc., before cooking.
CAUL FATThe stomach lining of pork which is used in place of back fat for pates and to encase crepinettes.?
CAULDRONSA large metal pot (kettle) for cooking over an open fire, with a large mouth and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger.
CAVALIER SAUCETomato-flavoured demi-glace with mustard and tarragon vinegar garnished with capers and diced gherkins.
CAVIAR-These are the eggs of sturgeon that have been salted and cured.?
CAVIAR-The roe of the sturgeon fish, once processed, is known as caviar.
CAYENNE PEPPERVery strong type of ground pepper, made from chillies.
CAZUELAS AND OLLASTraditional Mexican earthenware, casseroles and claypots.
CDPChef De partie
CECIThe round irregularly shaped buff-colored legumes with a firm texture and a mild nut-like flavor. Also called "chick-peas" and "garbanzo beans." Used in salads, soups, and stews.
CELERIACThis vegetable is the root of a special celery that is cultivated specifically for its root. It tastes like a cross between parsley and a strong celery. Used in soups, stews, and purees. Also known as "celery root" and "celery knob."
CELERYOne of the most popular vegetables in the Western world. This plant grows in bunches of leaved ribs surrounding a tender heart. Eaten raw and used in soups, stews, and casseroles.
CELERY SALTA seasoning composed of celery seed and salt.
CELERY SEEDThe seed of the wild celery called "lovage," most of which is grown in India. Because of its strong flavor, it should be used sparingly. Used in soups, salads, and meat dishes
CELLOPHANE NOODLEA form of translucent Chinese noodles made from the starch of mung beans.
CELLOPHANE NOODLESVariety of pasta: made from bean or pea starch.
CELTUSEA variety of lettuce that exhibits characteristics of both celery and lettuce. Celtuse can be eaten raw or cooked.
CENCIONIVariety of pasta: oval-shaped and curved upwards like a petal.
CEPEFlap mushroom; thick, fleshy and moist.
CERFEUILChervil, a delicate herb with fern-like leaves, used to garnish consommes and as an integral part of fines herbs.
CERVELASFrench smoked sausages similar to a saveloy, made of pork but also available made from fish such as pike.
CERVENAMeat from New Zealand farmed deer.
CESNICABaked during Christmas season with a solid silver coin in the dough for good luck; the family member whose bread piece contains the coin is viewed as the most fortunate for the year.Serbia
CEVICHEMarinated raw fish in lemon and lime juices with onion rings; serve with julienne of pimento and hard-boiled egg.Served differently in different countries.
CEVICHEFish pickled in lime juice.
CHAAT MASALAAmchur (mango powder), black salt, cayenne pepper, cumin seeds, fennel seeds, ground ginger and mint.
CHABICHOU CHEESEGoat's milk, soft, smooth, from France.
CHABLISIt is a clear, pale white and dry wine made from Chardonnay grapes.
CHAHKANGKUNGStir-fried cabbage greens.
CHAIChai is 'tea' in India. Traditional Indian chai combines very black tea that is boiled in milk and flavoured with local spices such as ginger and cardamom.
CHAKKAI VARATTIJackfruit jam.
CHAKKITwo circular grinding stone hold slight apart, either vertically or horizontally, to de-husking or grinding of various grains.
CHALAZAECord-like strands of egg white that indicate the egg's freshness.
CHALLAHJewish plaited bread.
CHALLAHBraided bread, made with wheat flour, yeast, oil/butter and eggs.
CHALUPASThick, filled, boat shaped tortillas.MEXICAN
CHAM CHAMCottage cheese dumplings, stewed in light sugar syrup and filled with thickened milk and cream
CHAMBORDVery fruity liqueur made from black raspberries.
CHAMOMILEBasically used as a tisane for digestive upsets. The leaves, seeds and flowers are used for flavouring food or in medicine.
CHANTELLE CHEESESemisoft, ripened French cheese. Pale golden; delicious with pears or pineapple.
CHANTILLYWhipped cream sweetened with sugar.
CHAPATIWhole wheat bread from unfermented dough made with salt and water, rolled thin and flat and cooked on a griddle.
CHAPTALISATIONDuring colder years the grapes don't make enough sugar and are therefore not sweet enough, resulting in low sugar levels in the wine. The addition of sugar to wines is called chaptalisation.
CHARCHARIUsed to cook a variety of vegetable which are cut into thin strips and then seasoned with ground spices like mustard seeds/poppy seeds and flavored with phoron.INDIA
CHARCUTERIEButcher shop.
CHARCUTIERButcher and sausage maker.
CHARLOTTESponge fingers lined in a circle, filled with fruit puree.
CHARTREUSE GREENHerb flavoured liqueur.
CHASSEUR SAUCEDemi-glace with mushrooms.
CHATEAUBRIANDDouble steak cut from the beef tenderloin.
CHATEAUBRIANDA large steak cut from the head, also called double fillet steak. It approximately weighs 340 gms.
CHAUD-FROIDHot and Cold. Food coated with cold white sauce.
CHAUD-FROID SAUCEHot and cold thick white tomato sauce glaced with jelly or aspic.
CHAUTEAUBRIAND SAUCEDemi-glace, white wine, chopped mushrooms, thyme, tarragon, cayenne ,pepper and parsley.
CHAWAN MUSHIThick custard soup.
CHAWANMUSHIA Japanese savoury egg custard. Eggs are gently beaten with fish stock, then poured over bits of various ingredients like chicken, prawns, gingko nuts, lily root, fishcake, etc. and steamed over boiling water.
CHAYOTESquash.
CHEDDAR CHEESEMild to sharp, has an appetizing, nutty flavor, and a firm buttery texture; cream-colored to orange, made in America.
CHEF DE CUISINEChef in charge.
CHEF DE PARTIEChef in charge of a section of the kitchen.
CHEF S KNIFEA chef's knife is one of the most versatile cutting equipment one can find in the kitchen. It has a wide triangular blade which tapers to the center tip. A lot of tasks in the kitchen are made easy with this knife since it can be used for mincing, slicing, cutting juliennes, smashing garlic and disjointing large cuts of meat.TOOL
CHELAS SIDECAR COCKTAILDry Gin, Cointreau, lime juice and sugar syrup.
CHERIMOYAA large tropical fruit with cream coloured flesh.
CHERMOULASpice rub from the ginger, garlic, cumin, chilies, coriander seed etc, from North America countries.
CHERVILThis herb has a sweet taste similar to tarragon and should be added at the completion of cooking. It is widely used to flavour stews, fish, steamed vegetables and certain sauces that require tarragon.It is also used in salads, salad dressings, meat dishes, savoury sauces, egg dishes or as a chopped garnish.
CHESHIRE CHEESEEnglish cheese. Hard-pressed, firm, comes in red, white and blue varieties.?
CHEVRE CHEESEFrench Cheese. Made from goat milk, very pungent and creamy.?
CHHANAAcidification of milk by lemon or other mild acid to make cottage cheese.
CHHANAR JILIBIAn irregular shaped dessert from Bengal,made with cottage cheese,deep fried and steeped in saffron-flavoured sugar syrup.
CHHENCHKKMethod used to cook vegetables and sometimes even their peels. In this the vegetables are flavored with panchphoran or mustard seeds or cumin. Chopped onion and garlic can also be used to add flavor to the dish.INDIA
CHICHARRONFried, crispy pork skin, similar to crackling. The skin is twice deep-fried at two different temperatures, causing it to balloon into honeycombed puffs.
CHICKEN BOOYAHA chicken stew-soup generally found in Wisconsin.
CHICKEN FAJITIAS :Chicken strips marinated with red chili paste , garlic , lemon juice and cooked with thin julienne of capsicum,onion and tomato.
CHICORYAn endive relative with curly, slightly bitter leaves that are used in salads or cooked as greens.?
CHIDVABitten rice or rice flake.
CHIFFONADEShredded leafy vegetables like spinach and lettuce.
CHIFFONNADEA ribbon like cut of leafy vegetables ie;lettuce
CHIKKIVarious nuts or dry fruits or seeds mixed with jaggeryto set hard in ball or slab shape.
CHIKUWAA variety of Japanese fish paste cake.
CHILI POWDERPowdered, dried whole red chilli.
CHILLI SAUCEMade in different colours from different chillies.
CHILLIESMembers of the pepper family. Three groups - tabasco, jalapeno and cayenne - are divided into hundreds of varieties with different shapes and degree of hotness.
CHIMICHANGASStuffed, tortillas folded from four side and deep fried.
CHIMICHANGASTortilla is shaped into a parcel , filled and deep fried.MEXICAN
CHINOISE-A cone-shaped strainer or sieve.
CHINOISE-A rigid cone shaped strainer made of perforated metal used to strain sauces and soups.
CHIPOLATAA type of small sausage or/a type of pastry used for eclairs Choucroute- Saurkrautpickeled with salt & fermented.
CHIPSSliced into Chips.
CHIVESThis is a mild,onion flavoured herb,especially good for fish, chicken, egg dishes and potatoes.Chives enhance the taste of almost any buttered vegetable such as carrots, beans, sweet corn, squash, peas, cauliflower and mushrooms.
CHIVRY SAUCEVeloute, white wine, shallots, tarragon, parsley, chives, butter and chervil.
CHLOROPHYLLThe fat-soluble pigment found in every green vegetable including broccoli, spinach and green beans.
CHOCOLATECocoa seeds roasted, husked and ground.?
CHOCOLATE CURLSChocolate curls are used to decorate desserts and other confections. To make chocolate curls, take a vegetable peeler with a long, narrow blade and warm it slightly (or warm the chocolate). Draw the peeler along the smooth surface of the chocolate to make curls.
CHOCOLATIEROne who works with the production of chocolate.
CHOP-To cut into tiny pieces with a sharp knife.
CHOP-To cut food into irregular small pieces
CHORIZO-Spicy sausage meat.INDIA - GOAN
CHORIZO-Spicy Spanish sausage made from pork and cayenne pepper.INDIA - GOAN
CHORON SAUCEBearnaise with tomato puree.
CHOUX PASTEChoux pastry, cream puff and eclair butter.
CHOWCHOWA mustard-flavored relish of vegetables and pickles.
CHOWDERChowder is like a stew containing chunks of ingredients . Most chowders contain potatoes.
CHRISTIAN IX CHEESEDanish, semifirm. Made with caraway seeds.?
CHRISTMAS WAFEREmbossed with images of Christian figures, such as Jesus, or Virgin Mary.Eastern Europe
CHU-TOROPinkish tuna meat of middle fatness.JAPANESE
CHULAHA mud fireplace or oven.
CHUNAMSlacked lime.
CHURMAMade with flour cooked with ghee and sugar.
CHURNINGHomemade butter making process, by using long stick & rope.
CHUTNEY-A coarse paste of various ingredients that uses coconut as a base. It takes the name of the ingredient which gives the main flavor. For example, if mint is used then it is called mint chutney. These are normally tempered with mustard seeds, Bengal gram dal and curry leaves in a little oil.
CHUTNEY-From the Hindi chatni, a condiment made from fruit, vinegar, sugar and spices; its texture can range from smooth to chunky and its flavour from mild to hot.
CHUTNEY-A freshly grounded relish consisting of various ingredients and mainly with the base of coconut or several lentils or the main ingredients and flavoured with chillies, raw mangoes. It takes the name from the main ingredient.
CIABATTAElongated, broad and flat Italian white bread made from wheat flour and yeast.ITALY
CICHETTI E LOMBRAA little bite and the shade, bite is the food, shade is a glass of wine.ITALY
CILANTRO- Fresh coriander leaves.
CILANTRO- Also known as coriander or Chinese or Mexican parsley, this herb has an assertive sagecitrus flavour.
CILANTRO- It is used extensively in Mexican salsa and cold seafood salads.Cilantro is used extensively in Indian,Chinese and Thai cuisine.
CILANTRO LEAVESPungent herb, also called "Chinese parsley" and "coriander," is used in highly seasoned foods.
CINNAMONSpice comes from the inner bark of a tropical evergreen tree.
CIOPPINOCalifornian tomato broth with a variety of seafood.
CLABBER CHEESEEnglish name for pot cheese.
CLAMARTGreen peas, chateau potatoes.
CLARETDark red wine from Bordeaux, France.
CLARIFYRemove impurities from butter or stock by heating the liquid, then straining or skimming it.
CLASSIC CUISINEA late 19th-and early 20th-century refinement and simplification of French grandecuisine. Classic (or classical) cuisine relies on the thorough exploration of culinary principles and techniques, and emphasises the refined preparation and presentation of superb ingredients.
CLEAVERA heavy, versatile knife with a large rectangular blade used for cutting through bone.
CLING FILMCling film or food wrap is made of Low density Polyethylene (LDPE) which is a thin plastic film used for sealing food.TOOL
CLINGSTONEA term that refers to a fruit with a pit to which the flesh clings tenaciously. The term with the opposite meaning is "freestone".
CLOTTED CREAMClotted cream is a type of thick, delicious cream. Fresh unpasteurised cow's milk is left to stand in a warm place and then heated gently. It is skimmed from the surface and the resulting cream collected and cooled. The thick and delicious cream is served with scones, puddings,fruits etc.
CLOUTEROnion cloute; an onion studded with cloves.
CLOVEA dried spice of unopened flower bud of the tropical evergreen clove tree.
CLOYSTERS COCKTAILDry Gin, Chartreuse Yellow Liqueur, grapefruit juice, lime juice, sugar syrup and chilled mineral water.
COCK-A-LEEKIESoup made from chicken, potatoes and leeks.
COCKTAIL SAUCETomato puree, Worcestershire, Tabasco and lemon with base of mayonnaise.
COCOAThe fruit of the cocoa plant. These beans are fermented, dried, roasted, cracked and ground. After extracting half the fat, it is again dried into unsweetened cocoa.?
COCOA BUTTERA non-dairy product, it is a natural vegetable fat extracted from the cacao bean and
COCOLIs one of the oldest types of Mexican bread made from wheat flour, milk and eggs.
COCONUT CREAMCoconut cream is made by combining one part water and four parts shredded coconut meat and simmering until foamy. The coconut is then discarded and the cream is extracted.
COCONUT FLOURcoconut flour
COCONUT MILKCoconut milk is made by combining equal parts of water and shredded coconut meat and ground and the milk is squeezed and removed.
COCONUT WATERThe opaque white liquid in the un ripened coconut.
COCOTTEAn oven proof dish (small).
CODDLEA cooking method in which eggs are put in separate containers, placed in a pan of?simmering water for slow and gentle cooking.
COEUR A LA CREME CHEESEDelicate, soft, creamy French dessert cheese.
COFFEE- Coffee is a natural product grown in the tropical and sub-tropical belts. Coffee is the seed of a cherry from the coffee tree.
COFFEE- Chemical Solvent.
COIMBRA CHEESEPortuguese semi firm, salty-sharp cheese which is sometimes made from goat's milk.
COINTREAUBrandy and oranges flavoured liqueur.
COLANDERA vessel having small holes in the bottom used as a Steiner.
COLANDERThe name colander is derived from the Latin word 'column' which means sieve. This is a bowl shaped utensil with holes in it used for draining.
COLBY CHEESEAmerican. Softer, open textured. White to medium yellow in color and is good for both cooking and eating plain.
COLESLAWA salad of shredded red or white cabbage and mayonnaise.
COLLARDA variety of cabbage that doesn't form a head, but grows in a loose rosette at the top of a tall stem. It tastes like a cross between cabbage and kale, which is a close relative, and is also called 'collard greens'.
COLODTRUMSThick milk of dairy animals soon after birth of the calf.
COLOMBIA PASQUALEBread made with flour, eggs, sugar, natural yeast, butter and candied peel. The dough is then fashioned into a dove shape and finally is topped with pearl sugar and almond before being baked.ITALY
COLORADO BLACKIE CHEESEA natural cheese belonging to the Cheddar family. It comes with a black outer wrapping.
COMMISApprentice in the kitchen or dining room.
COMPOTE- Stewed fruit.
COMPOTE- Combination of fresh or cooked fruits served hot or chilled.
COMPOUND BUTTERFlavoured butter or butter seasoned with various ingredients is called compound butter.
COMTE CHEESEFrench cheese, similar to Gruyere. Ivory yellow. Repeatedly dressed with salt as it ages.
CONCASSERto chop roughly(usually tomatoes).
CONCHIGLIEVariety of pasta: seashell-shaped.
CONFITVegetables or meat or poultry cooked & preserved in its own fat.
CONGEALTo turn liquid into solid by chilling.
CONNECTIVE TISSUETissue, which supports and binds other tissues in the lean meat of a carcass.
CONSERVECombination of fruits cooked with sugar,often with nuts and raisins added.
CONVECTION OVENA convection oven is a conventional oven with a fan or blower to circulate the hot air in the oven. The oven works by heating the food within it. It does so by transferring the heat energy in the air to the surface of the food.
COOKIE CUTTERA cookie cutter is a tool with sharp edges used for cutting cookie dough into specific decorative shapes.TOOL
COON CHEESEA natural Cheddar-type cheese, well aged, very sharp, piquant, almost white in color, slightly crumbly.?
COOPER CHEESEA mild Cheddar from Vermont.
COPPA SALTcured, sweet & fragrant neck of pork from Northern Italy.ITALY
COPPER ILLUSION COCKTAILDry Gin, Cointreau and Campari bitter.
COPPIAFERRARESETwisted sourdough bread made with flour, lard, olive, and malt.ITALY
COQ AU VINA classic French chicken dish with mushrooms, onions, and bacon or salted pork cooked in red wine.
COQUILLECooked and served in a shell.
CORDIAL AND LIQUEURSThe terms 'cordial' and 'liqueur' are often used interchangeably. They both refer to very sweet liqueur made by combining or re-distilling spirits with one or more aromatic flavourings. But there are subtle differences. Liqueurs are flavoured with flowers, herbs, seeds, roots, plants, barks or spices, while cordials are generally prepared with fruit pulp or juices.
CORDON BLEUFrench for "blue ribbon".
CORETo remove the inner portion.
CORN SILK TEACorn silk is the yellow silky strands that run the length of the ear of corn. On its own, corn silk is not food, but can be made into a tea known for its therapeutic qualities for urinary disorders.
CORN SYRUPSyrup derived from cornstarch.
CORNBREADA baked or fried bread and has a golden appearance with a moist interior.North America
CORNED BEEFBeef cured in brine or coarse salt.
CORNETA cone shaped pastry made with brick pastry which is similar to the spring roll pastry.?
CORNHUSKER CHEESENatural aged Cheddar-type but softer.
CORNISH GAME HENAlso called 'Rock Cornish game hen', a hybrid of Cornish and White Rock chickens. These miniature fowl are about 4 to 6 weeks old and weigh about 1 kilogram - enough for one serving.
COSMOPOLITAN COCKTAILCointreau, Vodka Citron, Cranberry and lime juice.
COTTAGE CHEESEMild, neutral taste; soft, moist; large or small curd; white.
COTTAGE LOAFThe loversare madewhen largerand smaller roughly spherical balls are squashed together, forming a cottage shape.England
COTTENHAM CHEESEEnglish semifirm, double-cream cheese, sometimes veined with blue, that is creamier and richer than Stilton.
COULOMMIERS CHEESEVelvetly-soft, delicate flavoured dessert cheese from France. When well ripened, it develops a stronger almond-like flavor. Crust is white, with a creamy interior.
COUPEA shallow stemmed glass; also ice cream with the fruit and chantilly cream served in such a glass.
COURT BOUILLONA broth often prepared as the cooking liquid for seafood and sometimes vegetables.
COUSCOUSCouscous is a coarsely ground semolina. It is a staple grain in many North African countries.
COUVERTUREA smooth chocolate, rich, creamy and high in cocoa content, best used for coating fruits,as it forms a thin shell.
CRABAPPLEA small, red apple with hard, sour flesh. Best used in jams and jellies.
CRANBERRY SAUCECranberry puree, sugar and water.
CRAPEThin pancakes made with flour and eggs, can be stuffed with cheese, asparagus, ham, spinach, eggs, ratatouille, mushrooms, artichoke or meat product.FRANCE
CREAMTo beat fat & sugar to incorporate air break down the sugar crystals to soften the fat.
CREAM CHEESEAmerican cheese. Mild, buttery, soft, smooth, white. An acid curd cheese that is very high in fat content. Highly perishable and never ripened.
CREAM OF TARTARA natural fruit acid in the form of a fine white powder used as a whiteness stabiliser in confectionery.
CREMAsweet dessert or a thick creamy soup.ITALY
CREMA DANICA CHEESEVery smooth, soft, triple-creme dessert cheese produced in Denmark. Superb with black cherries and cognac.
CREMA-AGRIAMexican cream.MEXICAN
CREME BRULEECustard topped with a crust of caramelized sugar.
CREME CHANTILLY CHEESEA soft, delicate flavored French dessert cheese.
CREME DE ANANASPineapple flavoured liqueur.
CREME DE CACAOCocoa beans and vegetables flavoured liqueur.
CREME DE FRAMBOISESRaspberry flavoured liqueur.
CREME DE GRUYERE CHEESEA soft, ripened French cheese with the flavor of Gruyere but the consistency of Camembert. Delicious as a spread for crackers or as a topping for fruit.
CREME DE MENTHEMint flavoured liqueur.
CREME DE ROSERose oil and brandy flavoured liqueur.
CREME FRAICHEThe original French creme fraiche is a naturally fermented and matured raw double cream. But a similar product can be?made by combining cup of sour cream with 1 cup of heavy cream and warming the mixture to 27 degree celsius.?
CREME FRAICHEThe mixture is then covered partially and allowed to stand in a warm place overnight. It should then be stirred and chilled and used as required.
CREME FRAICHEFresh cream that has been thickened with culturing or souring agent.
CREOLE-Strips of green peppers, sliced onions,Creole sauces.
CREOLE-A style of cooking that features a spicy sauce or dish made especially with tomatoes, peppers, onions, celery and seasoning.
CREOLE CHEESEAmerican. Soft unripened cheese made of equal parts of cottage cheese and cream.
CREOLE SAUCESauteed onions, garlic and brunoise of capsicum.
CREPE-A thin pancake.
CREPE-French word for pancake.
CREPINETTEFatty veil that encases the cuts of a pig.
CRESSVarious plants belonging to the mustard family, especially the watercress, which has a pungent-tasting leaf.
CRIMP-To create a decorative edge on a pie crust. On a double pie crust, this also seals the
CRIMP-To pinch together the edges of pastry dough.
CRIMP-To pinch together in order to seal
CRISP BREADVery dry, traditionally consist of whole meal rye flour, salt and water.Scandinavia
CROCUSThe flower from which saffron is extracted. It is one of the most expensive spices.
CROISSANT DEMI-SEL CHEESEFrench, double-creme dessert cheese molded in a crescent shape and lightly salt-cured.
CROQUEMBOUCHEA decorative cone-shaped.
CROQUETTEbreaded, deep fried.
CROSNEPerennial root vegetable, crisp and juicy little tubers that enhance any salad.
CROSTINI-Slices of barguette brushed or olive oil, topped with various fillings and used as a base for appetizer.
CROSTINI-Toasted bread topped with a savoury mixture.
CROSTINI-Slice of a bread cut into a shape which is toasted with the topping.
CROUSTADEpastry crust.
CROUSTADEThese crispy cups can each hold about a tablespoon of filling, so they're perfect for making tiny horsdoeuvres and desserts.?
CROUTONS-Bread cut into various sizes and shapes, fried and used as a garnish.
CROUTONS-Small toasted or fried pieces of bread.
CROXETTIVariety of pasta: coin or medallion-shaped.
CRUDITES-Raw Vegetables
CRUDITES-Sticks of raw cut vegetables, such as carrot, beetroot, radish, peppers and cucumber etc.
CRUMBThe inside of the bread, not the crust. The consistency of the crumb depends on the ingredients for the bread: milk, buttermilk, gluten content, type of flour, grains, fat, type of sweetener,eggs, potatoes and so on.
CRUMPETFlat top, small pores with chewy and spongy texture, griddle cake made from flour and yeast. Their shape comes from being restrained in the pan/ griddle by the shallow ring.United Kingdom
CUBAN BREADSimple white bread, similar to French bread and Italian bread.United States
CUBATA COCKTAILDry Gin, lime juice and Coco cola.
CUBEBThis is the small, reddish-brown, irregularly shaped seed of a cardamom-like plant. The seeds are contained in a brown, wrinkled, fig-shaped, dried capsule.
CUISINECuisine includes the food as well as the manner and the style in which it is prepared and served
CUISSONThe French term used to explain culinary processes and details, especially cooking times.
CULLEN SKINKScottish thick soup made from smoked haddock, potatoes and onions.
CUMBERLAND SAUCERed currant jelly, dissolved in port, garnished with chopped and blanched shallots, julienne of orange zest, lemon juice, mustard, cayenne pepper and ginger.
CUMINA nutty flavoured seed, this spice is a member of the parsley family.
CURACAOBitter orange flavoured liqueur.
CUREProcess of preserving food by either of the methods dry curing or liquid curing.
CURINGA stage in the cheese making process when a cheese is left to ripen.
CURRY BREADJapanese curry is wrapped in a piece of dough, which is coated in flaky bread crumbs, and deep fried or baked.JAPAN
CURRY POWDERBlack peppercorns, cardamom, chillies, cloves, coriander seeds, cumin, fennel,fenugreek, garlic, mustard, nutmeg and turmeric.
CUTTING BOARDSA cutting board is a board on which vegetables and meat can be cut while protecting the kitchen counter. They are available both in wood and plastic.
CYCLIC MENUCyclic Menu is one that changes everyday for a certain period.
CYCLIC MENUe.g. Institutional menus, food festival, daily specials, special occasion menus etc.
CYCLIC MENUespecially , Table menus.
MezethesSmall savory appetizersGreek
QUAILA game bird of the partridge family that resembles a small, plump chicken. The flesh is white and delicately flavoured.
QUANDONGAn edible fruit of a species of the sandalwood tree, particularly the Australian variety. Its seeds have medicinal value.
QUARGEL CHEESEAustrian cheese. Skimmed milk cheese flavored with cumin.
QUATREEPICESCloves, ginger, nutmeg and pepper.
QUEIJO PRATO CHEESEBrazilian. Firm with a smoky flavor.
QUENELLESQuenelles are poached dumplings made from forced meat.Seasoned pur?ed fish, veal orpoultry shaped into an oval dumpling; poached in stock or court-bouillon.
QUESDILLASTortilla sandwich with a fillings of vegetables or chicken or meat, cooked on a hot griddle , cut into wedges and arranged.MEXICAN
QUESO ENCHILADO CHEESEMexican cheese, aged and firm; its rind is covered with hot red chili powder.
QUESO FRESCOA Mexican soft white crumbly cheese made from cow's milk.It is mainly sprinkled over food as garnish.MEXICAN
QUESOANEJOA hard cheese.MEXICAN
QUIBEBEA Brazilian winter squash soup made from pumpkin, onions, tomatoes, garlic and hot peppers.
QUICHESavoury tart with a creamy egg base.
QUICK BREADNorth America Leavened with ingredients other than yeast.
QUINCEA rare Asian fruit tree with beautiful red flowers. The flesh tastes like a cross between an apple and a pear.
QUINOATiny, round, ivory colored grain, when cooked it swells to four times its size and looks like a tiny disk with a C-shaped tail.
T-BONE STEAKIndividual portion of the porterhouse steak.
TABBOULEHArabic salad composed of bulger wheat, parsley, mint, and lemon juice dressing.?
TABLE D HOTE MENUSA fixed menu usually for a particular meal or occasion.
TABLE D- HOTEDenotes the set menu at a fixed price...
TABLE D?H?TE MENUSFixed menus usually served for a particular meal or a particular occasion. A choice of dishes may be offered at all courses; the choice and the number of courses will usually limited to two or three.
TABOULEHBroken wheat and parsley salad with a hint of mint.
TACOSThe hand held snack, a folded fried corn tortillas with fillings.
TACOSTortillas are deep fried in such a manner they look like..MEXICAN
TAFFELOST CHEESENorwegian or Danish dessert cheese, semi - soft, creamy white with a red outer rind, which comes in leaves.?
TAGLIATELLEVariety of pasta: similar to fettuccine but slightly wider.
TAGLIOLINIVariety of pasta: thin, 2mm-wide ribbon.
TAHINICrushed sesame seed paste.GREEK
TAJIN SAUCETangy and spicy fruit seasoning consisting of chilli peppers, lime and salt used as a condiment with Mexican food.
TAKOBoiled octopus.JAPANESE
TAKO-BIKIBOCHOUsed normally in Tokyo, it has a blunt end and also called an "octopus cutter"?JAPANESE
TALEGGIO CHEESEItalian dessert cheese, pale, smooth, aromatic, with a reddish crust.
TALLEYRAND SAUCEVeloute, white wine finished with cream and Madeira wine, brunoise of carrot,celery, leeks, turnips and truffles.
TAMALESMasda Harina tortillas with lard.A highly spiced Mexican meat dish.
TAMALESChoice of filling surrounded by masa and steamed.MEXICAN
TAMARINDA sour fruit widely used in Asian cooking.
TANGELOA cross between a tangerine and a pomelo, citrus in nature, with very few seeds.
TANGERINEA thin-skinned citrus fruit, descendant of the mandarin orange.
TANGRI KABABDrumsticks of chicken coated with egg, yoghurt,spices and cashew nut mixture and roasted in Tandoor.
TANNINSediments in wine.
TANSYTansy is a common perennial aromatic herb native to Eurasia. Its bitter-tasting pinnate leaves are sometimes used medicinally.
TANTIAM KODDIEgg curry.INDIA - GOAN
TANZAKU-GIRIRectangle cut of vegetables.JAPANESE
TAPENADEThick, pungent paste usually made from different ingredients.
TAPIOCAStarchy substance derived from the root of the "Cassava Plant".
TARAMAFish roe from mullet.GREEK
TARAMOSALATAFish roe spread.GREEK
TARATORBulgarian soup made with cucumber, garlic, dill, walnuts and yoghurt.
TARATOURBread crumbs, garlic, oil and lemon sauce.
TARHKATempering.
TARTSweet or savoury open-faced pie.
TARTARE SAUCEMayonnaise with onions, herbs, mustard, egg yolks, gherkins, olives, parsley and chives.
TATE-JIOSeawater salting. Fish are salted by placing then in a salt-water bath. The solution should be about the same as seawater. This technique is used for delicate white fish and thinly sliced firm textured white fish.JAPANESE
TEA BLENDA standard term used to indicate a mix or 'blend' of various teas to imbue the drink with characteristics like flavour, aroma, colour and strength.
TEEZANBeverage made up of ragi (finer millet) powder , milk, coconut and sugar.INDIA - GOAN
TEFF FLOURThe flour produced by grinding the seeds of the teff, a north African grass cultivated for its seeds.?
TEJPATBay leaf in Hindi.
TELEMI CHEESERumanian origin, where it is made of sheep milk. American cheese of same name is made of cow's milk. Semi soft, much like American Mozzarella.?
TEMPEHFermented soy bean cake used in Indonesian cooking.
TENDERLOINVery tender cut of meat from the loin of the hindquarter.
TEPPANYAKI COOKINGTeppanyaki is a Japanese term for grilling meats and poultry. Grilled meats are very popular in Japan. Each diner gets his or her own small hibachi to individually prepare the meat as preferred. The teppanyaki style of cooking took advantage of the tourist trade. It combined traditional grilling with Western beef cuts to create Japanese steak houses. Diners sit around a large metal griddle to watch an entertaining chef chop, flip and cook beef, chicken, shrimp and vegetables, served with ponzu (a soy sauce-citrus juice sauce).
TEQUILAMexican spirit distilled from the fermented juice of the agave cactus plant. The alcohol content in Tequila ranges from 35% to 50%.
TERRINEAn earthenware casserole. The term is also used for foods, usually pate mixtures prepared and baked in such a dish, as terrine of chicken.
TETSUNABEJapanese iron boiling pot, comes with a wooden lid and bucket style handles.JAPANESE
TEXTUREA general term for the feel of cheese when touched, tasted or cut.
TEXTURE OF BREADClosely relates to crumb, it describes the texture of the crumb as determined by touching, eating or tasting.
THANDAIA chilled beverage made with milk, sugar, dry nuts, rose petals, saffron, poppy seeds,cardamom and pepper.
THATTAIThese are deep fried disks of a rice flour-based dough.INDIA
THAWTo remove from freezer and place under refrigeration approximately 18-48 hours. Internal temperature should be above 1 degree Celsius.
THECHWANIMade from radish or potato. In this the vegetables are not cut but crushed into smaller pieces.KUMAON - INDIA
THEOBROMINEA dimethyl xanthine found in the cacao plant and therefore in chocolate. It is a caffeinelike stimulant.
THORANSauteed vegetables tempered with grated coconut and mustard seeds.
THOUSAND ISLAND SAUCEHard-boiled eggs, tomato sauce, chopped gherkins, onions, pimentos, olives and paprika powder mixed with mayonnaise.
THYMEThyme has a very strong flavour because of the thymol contained in it. It retains this flavour when dried. Thyme is a good source of iron and is a very popular ingredient in almost all cuisines. It is widely used to flavour meats, stews and soups and goes well with tomatoes, eggs and lamb. Though strong, it blends well with other herbs and spices.
TIA MARIARum, coffee bean and vanilla flavoured liqueur.
TIFFINNormally a light evening snacks or morning breakfast.
TIGER BREADBread made as a white bread bloomer loaf or bread roll, generally used sesame oil and rice paste on surface before baking.Netherlands
TIGNARD CHEESEFrench cheese.Firm, blue - veined goat's - milk cheese.
TIJUANA CHEESEMexican. Firm, pale, but with a hot after taste because bits of hot red pepper were added to the curd before aging.?
TIKKACubes of meat or fish or chicken, marinated skewered and roasted in Tandoor.
TILLAMOOK CHEESEAmerican cheese. Type of Cheddar, bright yellow, firm, not flaky. The salt-free variety has an indescribably pungent but not sharp flavor.
TILSITER CHEESEMade originally by the Dutch. Semi firm, with piquant flavor.
TIMBALEA half conical mould of tin in various sizes.
TIN OPENERtin opener
TIRAMISUfavorite Italian dessert with cream, coffee and Amaretto.ITALY
TIROPITAFilo stuffed with layers of feta cheese and egg.GREEK
TISANESTisane or ptisan is an exotic word for herbal tea. The herbal plant can be steeped in hot water or the tea can be brewed in a pot with a particular herb for over 12 hours till it acquires its aroma and its flavour.
TO- FUSoya Bean curd.
TOCINOCured ham with added colour.
TODDYFermented sweet sap of Tar or Palmyra palm.
TOFFEESugar, butter and flavourings boiled together and then allowed to cool and harden.
TOFUA low-calorie, high-protein, cholesterol-free food made from curdled soy milk.
TOFURKYMock turkey or a vegetarian alternative to turkey.
TOHEROA SOUPNew Zealand's seafood soup. A Christmas speciality.
TOJOLOTEMexican mortar and pestle made from heavy black basalt.Actually called Molcajete & TojoloteMEXICAN
TOM KHA GAIThai herbed chicken and coconut soup, strong and piquant.
TOM YUM KOONGPiquant Thai hot and spicy shrimp soup with fish sauce, cilantro and lemon.
TOMATILLASGreen tomatoes with husk.
TOMATILLOLooks like a small tomato with a husk.MEXICAN
TOMATO SAUCEmade with skinned, deseeded tomatoes, bacon, vegetables and spices.
TOMME DE CHEVRE CHEESEA small French cheese made from goat's milk.?
TONGSTongs are kitchen equipment that are used to lift or grasp hot foods and to rotate or turn food with delicate precision.TOOL
TONNATOcreamy tuna and anchovy sauce.ITALY
TOROWhite prime tuna, the fattest cut.JAPANESE
TORTALLONIVariety of pasta: stuffed, cushion-shaped pasta with scalloped edges.
TORTEA rich multi-layered cake made with little or no flour.
TORTELLINIVariety of pasta: shaped around the finger, like a hat with curled edges.
TORTILLASFlat bread made of corn flour, considered to be Mexico's national bread.
TORTONliqueur flavoured ice creamITALY
TOSCANO CHEESESharp sheep's-milk Italian cheese of the Pecorino family, firm, but soft enough to slice or cut in wedges.?
TOSSTo mix ingredients lightly.
TOSTADASHuge bowl shaped deep fat fried tortilla shells.
TOSTADASTortilla shaped like a plate . It is used to serve the main course itself .MEXICAN
TOURNE-CHATEAUCastle-like.
TOURNEDOSa small steak from the center of the tenderloin.
TRANCHERto carve or slice a food item.
TRANS FATTrans fat is made when hydrogen is added to vegetable oil - a process called hydrogenation. Hydrogenation increases the shelf life and flavour stability of foods containing these fats. Trans fat is formed when food manufacturers turn liquid oils into solid fats like shortening and hard margarine. A small amount of trans fat is found naturally, primarily in some animal-based foods.
TRECCE CHEESEBraided semi soft Italian cheese.
TRIPEThe edible lining of the stomach (beef).
TRIPEL CREME CHEVRE CHEESESoft, ripened, cheese made from goat's milk. The crust (if white) can be eaten, as well as the creamy interior. High in butter fat.
TRIPLE CREME CHEESESoft ripened dessert cheese containing more than 75% butter fat.
TRIPLE SECOrange flavoured liqueur.
TRONCONThick piece of flat fish cut on the bone.
TRONDER CHEESENorwegian, semisoft cheese, mellow, creamy - white color. 45% butter fat content.
TROWELSimilar to a comb and used to produce ribbon sponge shapes and create striped designs..
TRUSSTo bind poultry with string or skewers for roasting.
TSUKIGIRICut with a forward thrusting motion.JAPANESE
TSUMA-ORE-GUSHITucked under skewering. This technique is used mainly with thin fillets, which by "tucking" adds height to the fillet.JAPANESE
TUACABrandy flavoured with orange and vanilla.
TUAREG CHEESEUnsalted skimmed-milk cheese made by Berber tribes in Africa.?
TUBETTIVariety of pasta: slightly bent pipe-shaped.
TUNISIAN FIVE-SPICECinnamon, cloves, grains of paradise, nutmeg and peppercorns.
TURKISH COFFEEBoiling powdered roasted coffee with sugar so that the dregs settle.
TURMERICA slightly bitter spice taken from the root of a plant in the ginger family.
TURNEDCut into 3-cm long sections and turned into a barrel shape.
TURNERIt is a wooden or metal spatula that is used to turn or flip foods.TOOL
TVPTextured Vegetable Protein derived from soyabeans, oats, etc.
TYRIAGreek Cheeses.GREEK
TYROLIENNE SAUCEBearnaise with olive oil instead of butter.
TZATZIKIDip made from yoghurt,cucumber and garlic and is served with pita bread.GREECE
UKHARussian fish soup flavoured with cinnamon and cloves, preferably cooked on an open fire.
UNERI-GUSHITechnique for skewering fish in a wave form. Applies to ocean fish.JAPANESE
UNISea urchin eggs.
URADBlack gram.
URSULINESName given to chicken or veal quenelles.
USUBAVegetable knives for professional use, have a number of shapes, and the cutting edge is on one side only. It is used for paring vegetables, slicing, chopping & mincing.JAPANESE
USUBA-BOCHOThe vegetable knife commonly used in the home kitchen. Usually black blade.Usuba are vegetable knives for professional use, have a number of shapes, and the cutting edge is on one side only. It is used for paring vegetables, slicing, chopping & mincing.JAPANESE
VACHERIN CHEESESeveral different cheeses fall under this name; it is semisoft.
VEALMeat of the calf up to one year old.
VENDOME CHEESESoft French cheese, ripened in charcoal or buried in ashes.
VERBENAVerbena is used when fresh, as it loses its flavour when dried. Its leaves are used in cocktails and to add unusual flavours to pork and chicken dishes. It is said that headaches are cured with a dose of verbena tea.
VIERGEOlive oil based sauce made with onion, garlic, tomatoes, fresh basil & coriander leaves.
VINAIGRETTEMixture of oil & acid - usually vinegar & lemon juice, in an approximate ratio of three or four part of oil to one part of the acidic ingredient.
VINEGARA weak solution of acetic acid and water used in pickling, preserving, tenderizing, and to add a sour flavor to foods.
WACSWorld Association of Chefs Societies.
WADIOther name is bati or bari. Urad dal batter fermented for overnight, make small shape and dried in sun to preserve.
WAKAMIA dried seaweed used in soups.
WASABIKnown as 'Japanese horseradish', the root is used as a spice and has an extremely strong flavour and its stem is pungent. It is dried, powdered and reconstituted with water.
WATER CHEST NUTwater chest nut
WATERZOOIDutch stew made from fish or chicken and vegetables.
WEAK COFFEEIt is a light diluted coffee, where the decoction is made with lots of water and less coffee powder. The use of stale or old coffee powder / liquor, and incorrect grinding of coffee used for the equipment in operation, result in the coffee being weak.
WENSLEYDALE CHEESEEnglish cheese. Firm, flaky, with a thick rind. Superb. Pale color, with a subtly pungent flavor.
WHEAT NOODLESVariety of pasta: long thin strings made from whole wheat flour.
WHEYThin white liquid , the byproduct of yoghurt and milk while making butter or cheese.
WHISKEY SOUR COCKTAILWhiskey and lime juice.
WHISKYScotland's finest contribution to the world is the malt whisky. Depending on the distillation process it is termed single malt, double malt and so on.?
WHITE BREADBread made from wheat flour.
WHITE CHOCOLATEBlend of sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin and vanilla.?
WHITE PEPPERWhite peppercorn is somewhat less pungent than the black variety. After ripening, its skin is removed and the berry is dried. White pepper is used in light-colored dishes.
WHOLE WHEAT BREADBread made using flour which is partly or entirely made from whole or almost whole wheat grains.
WILTSHIRE CHEESEEnglish Cheddar type, very sharp and crumbly.
WINEAn alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of fresh juice.
WIRE WHISKSeries of metal or stainless steel wires coiled and joined to a narrow long handle. They are used to beat egg whites into meringues and whip cream.TOOL
WISCONSIN LONGHORN CHEESEAn American Cheddar, medium-sharp in flavour.
WOKRound bottomed and has deep slanting sides.TOOL
WON TON SKINPaper-thin round or square sheets of dough made from flour, eggs, and salt. Used as wrappers to make "won tons".
WOO WOO COCKTAILVodka, Peach Schnapps and Cranberry juice.
WORTWort is the sweet, amber extract that is filtered from malt. After malted barley is mashed, wort is extracted from it and used to brew beer.
XANTHAN GUMProduced from the fermentation of corn sugar, it is most commonly used as a stabiliser, emulsifier and thickener in foods such as yoghurt, sour cream and salad dressing.
XNIPEC (MEXICAN)A type of chili sauce.?MEXICAN
YAKHIMutton and yoghurt-based broth flavoured with saffron and spices.
YAKHNIMeat or vegetable stock which is used in pulao.
YAKIDOFUGrilled tofu or soybean curd cake.
YAKIMONOGrilled food, including pan-fried dishes.JAPANESE
YAKITORIAn appetiser from Japan, made with various parts of chicken and vegetables, brushed with soy sauce, speared on bamboo sticks and grilled over charcoal.
YAKONRoot with a crunchy texture which is large, sweet and round.
YANAGI-BABOCHOKnife is pointed & is known as a "Willow leaf blade".JAPANESE
YASSAA Senegalese dish with grilled meat, lemon juice and condiments.
YAUTIARoot looks like a knotted, brown skinned carrot. The flesh can be pink, yellow or cream coloured. The flavor is suggestive of potatoes and beans.MEXICAN
YEASTA substance containing fungus cells used in-raising dough.
YERBA BEUNASpear mint with a strong pungent smell.MEXICAN
YERBA BUENASpear mint.
YORKSHIRE CHEESEEnglish cheese. When young, soft, bland, and creamy. When aged, sharp and zesty. Similar to a ripened Neufchatel.
YOU TIAOChinese doughnut.
YUFKAThin, round, unleavened bread made with, wheat flour, water, table salt.
YUGAKUParboiling vegetables.JAPANESE
AmarettiBittersweet cookies - prepared with equal amount of bitter almonds and regular almonds.
AmbalIt is a sour dish made with fish or vegetables. Tamarind is added to it to lend it sourness. Ambal is mostly made during summers and is meant to be eaten towards the end of the meal before the dessert.Bengal - India
Andare a cichetiTo go for snacks accompanied by a glass of red or white wine
AppamSimilar to dosa, but made with rice flour and toddy, these take the shape of the curved bowl-like pan in which they are prepared.India
Apple corerA tool that removes the core and pips of an apple while leaving the apple whole.
Arborio RiceLarge unhulled rice - used to make Risotto.
AtaarA seasoning, blend of thyme, sesame seeds, and other spices.
AvgolemonoAn egg and lemon mixture used as a sauce or a soup base.Greek
BaadiA kind of bread made from Kwadakaatta (also known as Mandua flour and is black in color). It is best served with Gahatkidal.sKumaon – India
BaccalàmantecataCreamed dried cod with olive oil, parsley and garlic (a real favorite)
BaklavaMade of layers of phyllo pastry, chopped nuts, and a honey-flavored syrup
BalMithaiA brown coloured sweet made from khoya or condensed milk and is covered entirely with sugar balls. It has a sticky texture and is yummy to taste.Kumaon – India
Bamboo broomA short broom of bamboo sticks which are tightly packed and tied together.
Used in Chinese kitchen to scrape out food particles attached to a wok.
Bamboo steameMade of interlocking strips of bamboo with perforated bottoms that fit on top of one another. The whole basket is placed over a pot of simmering water where the steam rises through the perforations and cooks the food.
BatilgianArmenian word for eggplant
BerbereHot sauce of Ethiopia.
BhajaMethod of coating anything be it vegetable, fish or meat in a batter of gram flour or besan and deep fried in mustard oil.Bengal - India
BhapTerm used for cooking using steam or simply the technique of steaming the food.Bengal - India
BhartaIt is a method used to cook vegetables like potato, brinjal, pumpkin, beans. In this the vegetable is first boiled and mashed finely and then seasoned with spices and mustard oil.India
BhunaA term used for grilling something be it vegetable or meat, covered with whole spices, on high heat.India
BologneseMeat sauce with tomatoes.
BourekakiaFilo puffs made with various fillingsGreek
Bread knifeA bread knife is a straight long and slender knife which has a serrated blade. The serrated edge ensures that the airiness in bread, cakes and sandwiches is retained and not pressed while slicing.
Bresaoladried fillet of beef
Brodettodelectable fish soup.
BulgerPar cooked wheat, dried and broken.Greek
Cacciatoreblack or green olives, Italian wine, mushrooms cooked with meat or game dishes – basically a hunters dish.
Calazoneliterallymeans “stuffed stocking” - A fold over pizza stuffed with cheese and meat.
CapersTiny pickled buds of a plant.
CassataDifferent layers of multiple flavors of rich ice cream made with nuts and fruits with pastry crust.
ChainsooDish prepared by using black gram dal.Kumaon – India
CharchariUsed to cook a variety of vegetable which are cut into thin strips and then seasoned with ground spices like mustard seeds/poppy seeds and flavored with phoron.India
Chef’s knifeA chef’s knife is one of the most versatile cutting equipment one can find in the kitchen. It has a wide triangular blade which tapers to the center tip. A lot of tasks in the kitchen are made easy with this knife since it can be used for mincing, slicing, cutting juliennes, smashing garlic and disjointing large cuts of meat.
ChhenchkkMethod used to cook vegetables and sometimes even their peels. In this the vegetables are flavored with panchphoran or mustard seeds or cumin. Chopped onion and garlic can also be used to add flavor to the dish.India
ChinoisA cone shaped metal strainer with a very fine mesh that is ideal for straining, sauces, soups and custards.
ChutneyA coarse paste of various ingredients that uses coconut as a base. It takes the name of the ingredient which gives the main flavour. For example, if mint is used then it is called mint chutney. These are normally tempered with mustard seeds, Bengal gram dal and curry leaves in a little oilIndia
Cichetti e l ombraa little bite and the shade, bite is the food, shade is a glass of wine
Cling filmCling film or food wrap is made of Low density Polyethylene (LDPE) which is a thin plastic film used for sealing food.
ColanderThe name colander is derived from the Latin word ‘colum’ which means sieve. This is a bowl shaped utensil with holes in it used for draining.
Cookie cutterA cookie cutter is a tool with sharp edges used for cutting cookie dough into specific decorative shapes.
Coppa Saltcured, sweet & fragrant neck of pork from Northern Italy.
Cremasweet dessert or a thick creamy soup.
CrostiniSlices of barguette brushed or olive oil, topped with various fillings and used as a base for appetizer
CroustadeThese crispy cups can each hold about a tablespoon of filling, so they´re perfect for making tiny hors d´oeuvres and desserts.
Cutting boardsA cutting board is a board on which vegetables and meat can be cut while protecting the kitchen counter. They are available both in wood and plastic.
DabFlatfish of the north-eastern Atlantic. It has a broken back.
DageAn Indonesian food produced by bacteria fermentation.
Dage may be prepared from various kinds of seeds.
Made from the presscake left after oil excretion from groundnuts or other nuts or from other vegetables waste.
DalSplit pulse used extensively in Indian cuisine
DalnaIt used for a dish of mixed vegetables in a thick gravy and seasoned with ground spices and clarified butter or ghee.India
DamsonOval plum
Has astringent taste
DandelionWild plant, relative to Chicory. Leaves, roots and flowers are edible
Danish pastryYeast dough made with milk and eggs, into which butter has been folded by a method similar to that employed for making croissants. Before baking pastry is cut into small sheets and filled of various fillings.
DarneA slice with bone, center section of large fish.
DashiJapanese soup stock is made by simmering flakes of dried bonito and pieces of giant kelp.
DaubeFrench culinary term, indicating either a method of cooking or a type of dish.
DeglazeTo dissolve or dilute the concentrated juices in the pan in which meat, poultry, fish, or game has been roasted or braised; the liquid may be stock, wine, cream, or fruit or vegetable juice.
Demijohnlarge bottle of basket of local wine.
DenaturationIn a food context, describes what happens to protein as a first result of being heated (or as a result of acidification, or of violet agitation, or of being cooled below a critical temperature.
DewberrySmaller fruits with fewer and larger duplets which are covered by a purple bloom.
DhansakIndian meat cooked with vegetables and lentilsIndian
DibsRefers to thick sweet syrup made by boiling down grape juice.Arabic
DinuguanIt is a stew of meats-variety and otherwise cooked in blood, vinegar, garlic and hot peppers.Filipino
DiplesThin strips of dough tied, folded into bows or loops and deep-fried, then dipped in honey syrup and topped with chopped nutsGreek
DittanderType of herb.
Pepper grass
DogfishA name given in a loose way to many of the smaller species of shark in many different languages.
Doggy bagFood served but not consumed, taken home in a bag.
DolmadesServed chilled as an appetizer. Grape leaves (also known as vine leaves) stuffed with rice, pine nuts and herbs and other seasoning.Greek
DomatoSoupaTomato soup.Greek
Doner kebabThin slices of marinated lamb packed tightly onto a vertical spit to form a solid mass and thus roasted, pieces of meat being cut off the outside as it browns.Turkish
DosaThin Pancakes made with a fermented batter of black gram lentil and rice, in a griddle plateIndia
DosaA rice and lentil pancake, crispy on the surface but slightly spongy inside..
Accompanied with withsambhar and coconut chutney.
DoughnutA deep fried ball or ring of soft dough, sometimes enriched with eggs, leavened with yeast or baking powder and often sprinkled with fine sugar afterwards.
DrisheenBlood pudding made from beef and sheep blood.South Ireland
DrupeCategory of fruits having flesh surrounding a single stone which is called a nut if edible. Examples: almond, apricot, cherry, mango, olive, peach and plum.
DuqqaSesame, coriander seeds, cumin, salt, pepper and hazelnuts pounded together.Arabic
DuxellesChopped mushrooms sautéed in butter with onions, shallots and flavoured with herbs.French
Egg slicerA tool designed to cut perfect slices of hard boiled eggs with thin wires.Its has a slotted base to hold the egg and a hinged plate of wires or blades that can be closed to slice the egg.
EmpanadaVarious food items are covered with bread dough and cooked..
EmulsionNot a mixture but a blend of two liquids usually with different consistency where one forms tiny droplets which are evenly dispersed in the other.
EnokitakeA convex cap long thin mushroom
EnsaimadaA sweet, airy yeast bun of Majorca made with the pork lard of highest qualitySpanish
EpazoteMexican herb, with a very strong flavor.
Older leaves have a strong flavor and younger ones have mild flavor.
EpicureIn the Food and Beverage context, best food and wine
It is a term derived from the Greek philosopher Epicures.
EscabecheFried fish or chicken marinated with vinegar, other ingredients and served cold.
ExplorateurFrench triple crème cheese.
Made in a thick disc shape and has a white bloom on its rind.
Has a creamy texture and flavor.
ExtractsConcentrated flavorings derived from an ingredient.
FadgeMashed boiled potatoes, flour and seasoning, made into round cakes and grilled.
FaggotA mixture of pork offal- liver, lungs, spleen etc.
FakkesA lentil soup in tomato base.Greek
FalafelPatties made from chickpeas, onion, garlic, parsley, coriander, cumin, flour, salt and pepper.
FarfalleBow-shaped pasta.
FasolathaTomato based navy bean soupGreek
FeculaGeneral term for a starch which has been rendered more or less pure by washing in water, as opposed to flour or farina, which contains protein and other substances from the original plant.
Most ordinary starches such as tapioca and corn flour are feculas.
FesenjanPersian poultry or meat balls stew made from pomegranate juice and walnuts.
FetaA Greek cheese. Feta is traditionally made from sheep’s milk or sheep’s and goat’s milk mixed. It is made in large blocks which are salted, sliced and salted again and packed into containers in which the cheese matures for about a month in the salty whey.
FibreA term for the indigestible constitutes of food. Among the most important of these is what is called roughage. It is primarily carbohydrate.
Figgy puddingA steamed or baked pudding made from figs, apples, carrots, breadcrumbs, flour, butter, eggs and brown sugar.
Fines herbesFrench term for a mixture of chopped fresh culinary herbs.
Finger limeIt is the fruit of a shrub or small tree found in the rainforest regions of North-East Australia. It belongs to the citrus family. The near cylindrical fruits are about 6cm long and may remain green even when ripe.
Finikia or MelomakarounaOblong, honey-dipped cookies covered with chopped nutsGreek
FisnoggeJewish calf’s foot jelly.
Five grains of chinaThe ‘five grains’ are
Chi (setaria millet)
Shu (panicum millet)
Tao (rice),
Mai (wheat and barley)
Shu (legumes).
Five spiceA Chinese ground spice mixture that consists of star anise, fennel, cloves, cassia (Chinese cinnamon) and Sichuan pepper.
FlanAn open short-crust pastry or sponge case containing a filling (sweet or savoury).
Floating islandA cold dessert consisting of round, flattish, baked meringue ‘island’ floating on a sea of custard.
FlorentineA dish containing spinach.
A dish garnished with spinach.
FlummeryA dish made by soaking fine oatmeal in water for a long time and then boiled and stirring the liquid until it is almost solid.
FocacciaA flat bread topped with different herbs
FocacciaOnion and olive bread
FoiegrasGoose or duck liver pate.
FondantA mixture of sugar, water and glucose boiled to the soft-ball stage.
FondueThe French for melted, is the name of a Swiss dish made of melted cheese.
Foo-FooThe most common name for the starchy pastes popular in most of W. Africa may be made from any fibrous vegetable.
Foo-Foo is made from Yam, Plantain, Cassava, Taro, Sweet Potato or Maize.
FoolA simple mixture of mashed fruits, raw or cooked as appropriate with whipped cream.
FoulArabic rice and bean stew dressed with olive oil and lemon juice.
FourmeA French word for mould (in the sense of a shaping mould, not a micro organism) appears in the name of some cheese molded to shape.
FraiseA medieval term referring to something of the general nature of pancake made with batter and fried.
FrangipaneA custard tart flavoured with pounded almond and pistachio.
FreekehRoasted green wheat, a specialty of Arab countries.Arabic
French breadIs made mainly with soft wheat. It absorbs less water, giving a drier loaf and raises less. It is not meant to be buttered.
FriandisesWord meaning delicacy
Usually a small item of sugar confectionery or a little cake served after the meal along with the coffee and eaten with the fingers.
French
FricandeauSlices of meat fried or braised with a sauce.
FricasseeFricassée– A white light stew made with meat or poultry or game or vegetable.
Frigate mackerelAlso known as “bullet mackerel” – from the tuna family
FrittataIt is cooked on one side and flipped over so both the top and the bottoms are golden brown.
FritterFood item coated in batter and deep fried.
FromagefraisA fresh creamy, smooth white cheese, lightly fermented and of varying fat content sometimes almost pouring.
FrumentyPorridge made from wheat, the name is derived from the classical Latin Frumentummeaning corn.
FudgeA grainy textured sweetmeat made from sugar, milk and butter boiled to the soft ball stage and then beaten up.
FuguJapanese delicacy, name for some species of blowfish.
FumetReduction of cooking liquor of fish or vegetable stock.
FunnelA funnel is used to transfer large amounts of liquids from a bigger container to smaller ones like bottles. They avoid spillage.
GalaktobourekoPhyllo filled with custard sauce and topped with a light honey/sugar syrupGreek
GardumbaLamb intestines rolled into a sausageGreek
Garlic pressA garlic press is a piece of kitchen equipment that crushes garlic efficiently by forcing them through a small grid of holes. They are a quick alternative to mincing garlic with a knife.
GelatoItalian Ice Cream usually prepared from egg based custard using whole milk or cream.
GhantoDifferent vegetables are chopped or grated and then cooked with phoron and other ground spices.India
GiouvetsiGreek casserole or baked in the ovenGreek
GlykismataDessertsGreek
Grappastrong digestive wine
GraterA grater is a kitchen utensil with sharp perforations.
Available in different sizes of grating slots and are useful in preparing a variety of dishes.
Grill panA heavy metal pan used to grill foods.
GyroThin slices of meat are seasoned with herbs and spices and served in sandwich form in pita bread along with tomatoes and onions.Greek
HalalFood processed / cooked as per Islamic dietary laws.
HaloumiMade from sheep’s milk, a semi soft and not very salty cheese.Greek
HandiA utensil used in Indian cooking. Usually made of brass and coated with tin, the handiis deep and its neck is narrower that its base.
HaramFood that are prohibited as per Islamic dietary laws.
HoriatikoPosmiBread made from cornmeal and whole meal flour.Greek
HummusA dip made with chick peas, tahini, olive oil, garlic and lemon.
IdiappamString hoppers made with rice flour are served with coconut milk/kormas/gravy curry/chutneysIndia
IdliSteamed cakes made from rice and black gram lentil batterIndia
Insalatamistawild young leaves of many shapes and colors of lettuce served with a vinaigrette dressing
JhalThis is used to cook meat. The meat is first fried lightly and then cooked in a light sauce of ground chillies, mustard and panchphoran.India
JholA stew -the fish, meat or vegetable is prepared in a stew kind of preparation and served with rice. Jhol preparations are usually made during summers as it is very light on palate and also very nutritious.India
JholiGravy made from curd and is thick in consistency.Kumaon – India
KadaifShredded dough filled with chopped nuts and cinnamon and topped with honey/sugar syrupGreek
KadhaiTraditionally made of iron, a kadhai is an Indian wok that is used to cook food with little or no water at all. They are also ideal for deep frying.
KafuliThick gravy based preparation made from green leafy vegetables.Kumaon – India
KaliaRich preparation of vegetables, fish or meat. Gravy is made using onion paste, ginger garlic paste, tomato puree and garam masala cooked in a lot of oil and ghee or clarified butter.India
KappaDish of spinach cooked in curd. It is flavoured using different spices and rice paste is added to it to give it a thick consistency.Kumaon – India
KaridopitaAlmond and walnut dark cake topped with a light honey/sugar syrupGreek
KassaMeat is first grilled in mixture of spices like onion, ginger, garlic, chilli powder, turmeric powder and cumin powder and then put into a thick gravy.India
KasseriCreamy farm cheese.Greek
KefalotyriA mild cheese made from sheep’s or cows milk.Greek
KefteidakiaFried beef meatballGreek
KibbehGround meat mixed with bulger wheat and cooked in oval-shaped patties or as a large cake.
Kitchen shearsKitchen shears are scissors that are used in the kitchen to cut dry fruits, snip herbs and trim the fat from poultry and meat. — to trim fat from poultry and meat.
KolokithiagemistaGreekZucchini stuffed with ground beef, rice and served with avgolemono sauceGreek
KolokithokeftedesZucchini frittersGreek
KopanistiMykonouCheese made from cow or sheep’s milk or made by using both. It is salty and spicy in taste. The process of coagulating milk is same as is used for preparing Feta with only difference being that the period for coagulation is longer.Greek
KormaCooking meat or chicken in a mild yoghurt based sauce and ghee.India
KosherFoods that meet the requirements of a strict set of dietary rules laid out in Jewish law.
KotosoupaChicken soup topped with a creamy lemon sauce.Greek
KoulourakiaGolden coloured , crisp, cookies covered with sesame seedsGreek
KounoupidiTiganitoBatter fried CauliflowerGreek
Kourabiedesbutter cookies topped with powdered sugarGreek
KremithosoupaA clear onion soupGreek
KuzambuA gravy dish that has vegetables and/or lentil stewed with spices, with or without coconut milk.India
LachanodolmadesCabbage leaves stuffed with beef, rice and served with avgolemono sauceGreek
LadleA ladle is type of serving spoon. It has a long handle and a deep cup shaped bowl. It is ideal for serving or transferring liquids like soups, stews and sauces from a pot to a bowl.
LesuMade by stuffing Madua flour into a dough made from wheat flour and a lot of ghee or clarified butter is applied to it while erving.Kumaon – India
Loaf panA loaf pan is a narrow rectangular mould that is used for baking breads and meatloaves.
LoukoumadesDeep-fried honey balls topped with honey.Greek
LoutzoukaxiaVariation on lentils.Greek
Maduaki RotiChapatti or roti made from a cereal called Madua. It is considered very healthy.Kumaon – India
ManouriMade from sheep’s or goats milk whey, a soft unsalted cheese.Greek
MarathopsomoFennel flavoured breadGreek
MaridesFried white baitGreek
Masala VadaMix of lentils, onion, green chilies, fresh coriander leaves and garlic ground coarsely, made into fritters and deep friedIndia
MasherUsed for mashingfood items such as boiled potatoes.
Measuring spoonsMeasuring spoons are those which are used to measure small amounts of ingredients such as oils, spices and other powders. The most commonly used sizes are the teaspoon and tablespoon.
Meat malletA meat mallet is a handy tool that is used to pound the surface of the meat and tenderize it.
Meat thermometerUsed to measure the internal temperature of meat and poultry especially in dishes like steaks and roast. They are also the most reliable and accurate way of determining if a roast is cooked through or not.
MelitzanosalataEgg plant puréeGreek
MelizanapapoutsakaEggplant stuffed with ground beef with tomato sauce and cheeseGreek
MelomakarounaOblong, honey-dipped cookies covered with chopped nutsGreek
Melon ballerA small spoon like tool that scoops melon into perfect balls.
MezethesSmall savory appetizersGreek
MezzeA small dishes served as appetizers in the Middle East.
Minestronetomato based vegetable and pasta soup
Mixing bowlA deep bowl for mixing ingredients together.It should have enough high sides to prevent splattering when hand held blenders are used.
MizithraSoft and hard varieties; made from sheep’s or goats milk wheyGreek
Monte Biancodessert consisting of chestnut purée, cream and Strega.
Mortadellalarge smooth textured sausage prepared from pork, fats and spices.
Mortar & pestleThe mortar is a deep heavy bowl with rounded edges to prevent spillage while pounding and the pestle is a heavy club shaped object whose head is used to crush or pound various herbs and spices - helps to release the most flavors from herbs and spices.
MoussakkaLayers of vegetables tossed with concasse, grilled eggplant, tomato puree and cheese .Greek
MughalThe cuisine of Northern India, which is heavily influenced by Persian cooking.
MurukkusThese little spirals of fried rice dough are snack items that are popularly eaten along with tea/coffeeIndia
Muslin clothLoosely woven carded cotton yarns and are unbleached and white in colour. Used for fine straining.
NisiotikiA vegetable and sea food soupGreek
NozzleIt is a small conical tool used to force out pulp into various shapes. They came in various shapes such as star, ribbed and plain ones.
Ombrebiancoglass of white wine
Ombrerossoglass of red wine
OrzoTiny melon seed-shaped pastaGreek
OssoBuccoknuckle of veal, sautéed and then stewed with garlic, onion and tomato
OuzoAnise flavoured colorless alcoholic drink.Greek
PaniyaramSweet or savoury mini cakes are made with rice flour and lentil. Cooked in a mould somewhat like a mini muffin trayIndia
PappadamFried disks made with black gram or rice flour that are served with mealsIndia
PareveIn Jewish dietary law, a food that contains neither meat nor dairy.
Paring knifeA paring knife is a small sharp knife with a short blade which is ideal for removing the skin of fruits and vegetables.
Parisienne scoopThe parisienne scoop also known as a melon baller is a tool that is used to scoop out uniform spheres of fruits, vegetables and icecreams.
Pasta FloraLattice-topped tart filled with apricot puréeGreek
PastitsioFlat pasta with ground meat, cheese, macaroni and is covered with béchamel sauce.Greek
PatatosalataPotato saladGreek
PayasamA sweet dish made with rice and/or lentils and milk that may be sweetened with sugar or jaggery.India
PhaanuIt is made from lentils. The lentils are soaked in water for about 4 to 6 hours before cooking and it is used making different types of lentils.Kumaon – India
PhoronTempering, which is used to flavor lentils. Different tempering are used for different lentils.
Piattomistoplate with a selection of hors d´oeuvres
PilafiRice boiled in broth and flavored with onion and spicesGreek
Pinot grigiodry white wine, goes well with Venetian cicheti and seafood
Pizza wheelA pizza wheel is a circular metal blade that has sharpened edges and is fitted to a handle.
Pizzaiolafresh tomato sauce flavoured with different herb-coarse consistency.
Polentacorn Meal Paste.
PolloSorpresabreast of chicken, filled with garlic butter, coated with breadcrumbs, rolled and deep-fried.
PoraVegetables are burnt over direct fire, mixed with oil and spices.
PoriyalDry sautéed vegetables, usually tempered with mustard seeds, curry leaves, split washed black gram dal and coconut.India
Pot holdersPot holders are made of cloth or silicone that are used to lift and handle hot pots, pans and dishes.
Potato peelerA potato peeler has a sharp blade that is serrated one one side and plain on the other. They are ideal for peeling the outer skin or peel of potatoes and other vegetables.
Primaveravegetable sauce prepared with broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, peas and mushrooms - accompaniment for pasta.
Prosciuttopopular Italian Ham. First seasoned and salt-cured. Then it’s air-dried, pressed, and sold thinly sliced. Normally they are aged between 18 and 24 months
Proseccosparkling appetitive wine, comes in both dry or medium-sweet
PsariFishGreek
Psomi Me RiganiOregano feta bread, cut into thick slices, brushed with olive oil and grilled.Greek
PulveriserHeavy duty electrical grinding machine with a very high speed of grinding and breaking down of ingredients to a fine paste/powder.
PuttuSteamed rice flour in a specially made cylindrical mouldIndia
RasamA broth made with tamarind juice, cumin and pepper. It is served with rice but can also be had on its ownIndia
RavaniSemolina cake, normally golden yellow in colour with a light sugar/honey or range-flavored syrup.Greek
RetsinaWhite or rose wine flavored with pine resinGreek
Risotto di pescerice with seafood
Risotto di seppierice with cuttlefish stewed in its ink, local favorite
RizogaloRice pudding with a dash of cinnamon on topGreek
Rolling pinA rolling pin is a long cylindrical device that is used for rolling out and flattening dough.
Rubber scraperMade of rubber, is used to scrape out or remove food from the sides of bowls, pans, jars, spoons etc.
RusThis dish is exclusive to this Kumaun region and is made with Dal stock. It is eaten along with rice.Kumaon – India
SabayonDessert made of whipped eggs, sugar and wine
SaganakiFried Kasseri cheeseGreek
Salpicona mixture of finely diced vegetables or meat
SaltimboccaLiterally " jump in the mouth" this term generally refers to folded over slice of meat filled with cheese and herbs or other meats that is quickly fried in a pan and eaten piping hot.
SaluteItalian toast
Sauce panA sauce pan is a deep pan which has a perfectly flat bottom, round base and straight sides. Used to heat sauces and cook food, such as rice, pasta and soups, on the cook top.
SautéLiterallymeans to "jump".
To toss the food while cooking in a pan.
SautéuseShallow pan with sloping sides
SautoirRound shallow heavy pan with straight walls & long handle
SavoiardiLady finger shaped cookies that are used as a base for several Italian desserts.
ScraperUsed to scrap food items off the table or vessel, also used to split bread and pasta dough.
Silicon scrapeMade of silicon, is used to scrape out or remove food from the sides of bowls, pans, jars, spoons etc.
SingalAnother sweet item which is made using semolina. It is a popular sweet and is usually made during festivals.Kumaon – India
SingodiSweet item made from a mixture of khoya and coconut. It is wrapped in a leaf from a local plant called Malu.Kumaon – India
SisunakSaagDish made from green leafy vegetables.Kumaon – India
SkewersSkewers are thin long pointed rods that are used to hold small pieces of food together. They are flat or square shaped so that the food does not spin. They may be straight or curved in shape. Available both in metal and woodthese are ideal for barbecues and tandoori dishes.
SkilletFlat bottomed frying pan that is used to fry foods or brown them.
Typically a skillet is about 8 to 12 inches in diameter with low sides that flare outside and a long handle.
SkordaliaGarlic sauceGreek
Slotted spoonsA slotted spoon is a spoon or ladle with holes or gaps in it. This is ideally used when a solid food has to be taken out of a container leaving the liquid or sauce behind.
SoffrittoMade from fried vegetables – base for soups.
SorbetFlavored Iced water, served between to large courses of meals.
Sous ChefSecond chef , next to the Executive chef in a hierarchy
SoutzoukakaiBeef meatballs baked in the ovenGreek
SouvlakiaSkewered foodGreek
SpanakopitaPhyllo pastries sheets stuffed with spinach, feta cheese, egg, onion, olive oil , butter and bread crumbsGreek
Steamer basketA steamer basket is used to steam cook food such as rice or fillet of fish.
Stracciatellaclear chicken soup.
StrainerStrainers are used to separate solid and liquid foods. The perforations on a strainer are much smaller in comparison to a colander. Usually strainers have a metal or plastic mesh in a crisscross pattern which retains finer food while draining the liquid.
StromboilA type of stuffed pizza in which the melted sauce filling flows from the dough similar to the flow of lava from the top of the Stomboil Volcano in Southern Italy.
SupremeBreast of chicken
TabboulehArabic salad composed of bulger wheat, parsley, mint, and lemon juice dressing.
TahiniCrushed sesame seed pasteGreek
TaramaFish roe from mulletGreek
TaramosalataFish roe spreadGreek
TaratourBread crumbs, garlic, oil and lemon sauce.
TerrineAn earthenware casserole
also used to refer a food item
ThattaiThese are deep fried disks of a rice flour-based doughIndia
ThechwaniMade from radish or potato. In this the vegetables are not cut but crushed into smaller pieces.Kumaon – India
Tiramisufavorite Italian dessert with cream, coffee and Amaretto
TiropitaFilo stuffed with layers of feta cheese and eggGreek
Tomatorizo Me GaridesKeorkosPrawns with tomato rice and saffron.Greek
TongsTongs are kitchen equipment that are used to lift or grasp hot foods and to rotate or turn food with delicate precision.
Tonnatocreamy tuna and anchovy sauce.
Tortonliqueur flavoured ice cream
Tournedosa small steak from the center of the tenderloin
TrahanaTomato based soup with tiny sour dough balls in itGreek
Trancherto carve or slice a food item
Trufflea black fungus which grows underground.
TurnerIt is a wooden or metal spatula that is used to turn or flip foods.
TyriaGreek cheesesGreek
TzatzikiDip made from yoghurt, cucumber and garlic and is served with pita bread.Greek
VadaDeep fried black gram lentil cakes.India
VaruvalA dry fried dish (chicken, fish or sautéed vegetables) with onions and spicesIndia
VelouteMother sauce
Blonde roux thickened white stock of chicken, fish, or veal.
Vol-au-ventPuff pastry in a shell in which prepared food items are served
Wire WhiskSeries of metal or stainless steel wires coiled and joined to a narrow long handle. They are used to beat egg whites into meringues and whip cream.
WokRound bottomed and has deep slanting sides.
Zabaionemarsala, sugar and egg, whisked into a creamy dessert
ZestThe outer rind of citrus fruit
ZesterA zester has a stainless steel rectangular head with five holes that are designed to remove fine shavings of citrus zest when dragged along the surface of the fruit.
Table 1
BaadiA form of bread made from Kwadakaatta (also known as Mandua flour and is black in color). It tastes best when served with Gahatkidal.s
Baccalà MantecataCreamed and dried cod with olive oil, parsley and garlic (a real favorite)
BaklavaLayers of phyllo pastry, chopped nuts, and a honey-flavored syrup
BalMithaiA brown coloured sweet made from khoya or condensed milk. It has a sticky texture and is covered entirely with sugar balls
Bamboo broomA short broom of bamboo sticks, tightly packed and tied.
Helps to scrape out food particles attached to a wok.
Bamboo steameMade of interlocking strips of bamboo with perforated bottoms that fit on top of one another. The whole basket is placed over a pot of simmering water where the steam rises through the perforations and cooks the food.
BatilgianAn Armenian word for eggplant
BerbereEthiopia's hot sauce
BhajaA coating of gram flour or besan applied to anything be it vegetable, fish or meat and deep fried in mustard oil.
BhapCooking using steam or simply the technique of steaming the food.
BhartaA method used to cook vegetables like potato, brinjal, pumpkin, beans by first boiling, mashing and later seasoning with spices and mustard oil.
BhunaA term used for grilling vegetables or meat, covered with whole spices, on high heat.
BologneseMeat sauce with tomatoes.
BourekakiaFilo puffs made with various fillings
Bread knifeA straight long and slender knife with a serrated blade, which ensures that the airiness in bread, cakes and sandwiches is retained while slicing.
BresaolaDried fillet of beef
BrodettoDelectable fish soup.
BulgerPar cooked wheat, dried and broken.
BabaA cake with a rich and light texture. Invented by a Polish King in 1704, named it after Ali Baba from “The Thousand and One Nights” after pouring rum on a dry yeast cake. Rose to popularity in Paris by the nineteenth century, commonly known as Baba. Made with flour, yeast, butter, and eggs in round moulds of different sizes, and soaked in rum or kirsch flavored syrup.
Baba Ghanoush(Arabic) Tahini, olive oil, lemon juice and garlic puree mixed with a minced char-grilled eggplant
BabacoOriginated from Ecuador – an edible skin that turns to a golden yellow from green on ripening.
BacalhauA dish made from Salt Cod, home to Portuguese Culture.
BaconMeat taken from the back and sides of a pig, that is smoked and cured. The fat adds a sweet flavor and a tender crips, accounts to almost two-thirds of the total weight.
Bacalou (Spanish)Codfish, salted or otherwise.
Baghali PoloA rice dish consisting of Lamb and dill, seasoned with aromatic spices.
Bagna CaudaA bain-marie (ban mah- ree) is a large, shallow pan half-filled with hot water in which smaller pans containing food items which cannot be reheated on direct heat are put to keep hot until required. This may be heated through gas or electric power
Bain-MarieA double boiler, often used to keep smaller pans with food that cannot be reheated on direct heat to be kept warm until served.
BallotineA boneless leg of poultry that is stuffed.
BannocksLarge, round cakes or scones, made from oatmeal, wheat or barley. Origin – Scotland.
BanyulsRed, rose or white French; sweet, dessert wine.
BapsSoft cottish breakfast rolls made from flour, milk, sugar, yeast and butter.
BarbelCarp family river fish, named after its physical traits – fleshy filaments that hang from its mouth, resembling a barbel.
BarberryBerries from the berberis plant.
BardPlacing slices of bacon or pork over the breast of poultry, to sustain moisture and flavor while cooking.
Barm BrackAn everyday fruit loaf made with yeast. Irish tradition.
BarquettesOval or bat shaped french pastry shells, with choice of filling inside.
BarracoutaLarge salt water fish with rough scales.
BarsacA sweet white wine, made from a sub-are called Sauternes in Bordeaux.
BassFamily of fish, that are voracious sea and river fish, with fins that resemble spines.
BasteApplying fat to the meat in the over, thereby preventing over-dryness.
Bath BunsTraditionally originated in the English spa of bath from the 18 th centrury, these buns have an uneven shape topped with a lump of sugar.
Bath ChapSimilar to bacon, the lower half of a pig ’ s chap and commonly consumed cold.
Battenburg cakeA dual colored sponge cake in a checkerboard pattern, usually iced with almond paste.
BavaroisSoft egg custard combined with gelatin, flavoring and whip cream.
Balsam PearAlso known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, a fruit of a tropical climber found in African and Asian continents.
Barbados cherryAlso called Acerola or Puerto Rican Cherry. A fruit obtained from a small tree in the West Indies and adjacent areas. Rich in vitamin C.
Baking PowderPrimarily sodium bicarbonate, or sodium acid carbonate. The powder also contains an acid like salt crystals that dissolve in water.
BarleyHardy grain, used in cereals, breads, and soups.
Barbecue SauceSauces used to marinate or over grilled meat, commonly made with tomatoes, onions, garlic, mustard, brown sugar, vinegar and beer.
BaraccudaA type of fish with a rigid texture and moderate fat. Resembling a pike, with long pointy jaws and sharp teeth.
Baking SodaUsed in baking, and mixed with an acidic ingredient like yoghurt or molasses. An acid and base chemical reaction produces Carbon Dioxide as bubbles, making the dough rise.
Balsamic VinegarItalian vinegar derived from White Trebbiano grapes, after aging for several years.
BasilHerb used for seasoning with a pungent flavor.
BallotineA dish made by stuffing forcemeat into a boneless leg of poultry.
Bavarian CreamPastry cream made with whipped cream, and gelatin for stablization. Poured into molds, or as filling in baking.
BatterUsed as a coating for foods, a combination of flour, liquid and other ingredients.
BeechnutFruit of the beech tree, triangular in shape. Carries flavors crossing a hazelnut and a chestnut.
Beef TeaSlow simmering beef, thereby extracting an essence.
Bean CurdSoya beans that have been cooked, pureed and pressed; cut into 3 inch square cakes that are half an inch thick.
Bearnaise SauceClassic French sauce made with a reduction of vinegar, wine, tarragon and shallots and finished with egg yolks and butter.
Bechamel SauceLight white sauces. White sauce is a mixture of milk or cream with a white roux, for example.
Bean SproutsTender sprouts of germinated beans.
Bean ThreadsA variation of Chinese or Glass noodles. Translucent in nature, made from mung bean starch. Also known as Cellophane Noodles.
BeansSeeded pods of legumes.
BeetA firm, round-rooted vegetable with nutritious leafy greens.
Bell PepperShaped like a bell, a mild and sweet pepper. Crips and juicy in nature, found in yellow, green, red, orange, purple and brown colors.
Bear A large quadruped primarily found in the west, and the Artic. Bear meet is cooked similar to beef.
Beef tartareCoarsely ground beef that is seasoned. Commonly served with a raw egg placed on top with herbs.
Beef Meet from cows and bulls under two years old.
BeefaloA cross with the buffalo and cattle, with the beef strain being stronger. Comparitively leaner than beef and the dark red meat has a stronger flavor.
BeerwurstGerman cooked sausage with a garlic flavor.
Belly-FishLow fat salt water fish. Large in size, has a sweet, mild flavor similar to that of a lobster.
BenedictineVarious aromatics like fruit peels and herbs added to a cognac. Named after Benedictine monks who invented it in the 16 th Century.
BeerAn alcoholic beverage that is brewed from malted marley and cereals mixed with yeast. Hops are used as flavorings, retaining its low alcohoic content.
BEIJING BLAST (Chinese)A salt free mix of black and white sesame seeds, green and pink peppercorns; poppy seeds and hot chillies.
Beignets (French)Fritters
Beurre BlancA creamy emulsion made from butter flavoring as a butter sauce.
Beurre Manie"Kneaded butter." ; Mixing flour and butter in equal parts, commonly used to thicken gravies and sauces.
Beurre Noisette"Hazelnut butter" or "brown butter." Whole butter that has been heated until browned.
Belle HeleneDessert made from ice cream, chocolate sauce and poached pear. Also a term for garnishing grilled meat in French cookery.
Bisbalenc (Spanish)Puff pastry shaped like a barrel, with a sweet zucchini filling topped with pine nuts.
Bikini (Spanish)A kind of toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
BisqueA thick cream soup or puree made from shellfish.
Bitter MelonA fruit of a tropical climber found in African and Asian continents. It is similar to a cucumber and is used as a vegetable. Also called "Balsam pear" or "bitter gourd."
Bib LettuceButter head lettuce, having loose white-green leaves; with a mild flavor.
Birds Nest (Chinese)Literally a Bird’s nest, made of regorged spittle of a certain breed of swallow.
Black Bun (Scottish)Fruit cake with raisins, currants, finely chopped peel, almonds, ginger and brown sugar, with cinnamon added to it.
Black WalnutA highly fat walnut black in colour
BlackberryLargest of wild berries, up to one inch long when fully mature.
BlueberryBlue-black berries, smooth skinned and round. Juicy and sweet in taste.
Black BeansAlso known as turtle beans, cream colored sweet flesh with black skin.
Black RaddishBlack coloured radish from the plants grown chiefly for their pungent peppery root.
Black SalsifyPopularly known as Scorzonera, a black skinned version of salsify. Most commonly greyish or a pale gold in color.
Black Turtle BeansAlso known as "turtle beans," cream colored sweet flesh with black skin. Its sweet flavor forms the base for black bean soup.
Black-Eyed PeansBeige colored beans with a round black ‘ eye ’ located along the inner curve.
BlanchTo dip food temporarily in boiling water, and then to cold to halt the cooking process.
BlanquetteWhite stew Ragout made from lamb, veal, or chicken with a rich veloute sauce.
BleachWhitening through chemicals or sun's rays.
BlintzA thin pancake, resembling a crepe. Rolled up add fillings of sweet or savory tastes; commonly ricotta, fruits or meat.
Black PuddingCommonly known as ‘ blood sausage ’ . Cooked links of large sausage, primarily made of pig ’ s blood, suet, oatmeal and/or bread crumbs.
Black CodSaltwater fish with high fat and a mild flavor. Not a true cod.
BlackfishA lean, delicately flavoured sea fish.
Blood SausageAlso known as "blood pudding". Cooked links of large sausage, primarily made of pig ’ s blood, suet, oatmeal and/or bread crumbs. It is generally sold precooked.
Blue CrabCrab with blue claws and a dark blue-green shell.
Bluefin TunaOne of the largest varieties of tuna, weighing over a thousand pounds. Flesh turns to dark red with a stronger flavor on ageing.
BluefishA fine textured fish that is fatty. Also known as ‘ bulldog of the ocean ’ .
BluegillNorth American freshwater fish. Famous for their bright colors, related to the perch family.
Bloody MaryA cocktail drink containing vodka, lemon juice, Worcestershire sauce and Tobasco, along with Pepper and V8, with tomato or cocktail juice.
Blanco/WhiteClassic light wine, with shades turning from yellow to gree or golden hues.
Blendto mix thoroughly, with speed or tools not of essence.
BlackjackSlang for gravy browning, often made by caramelizing sugar.
BloaterSalted and lightly smoked herring.
Blue PointSmall-size oyster.
Black Bottom PieA pie with a filling of dark chocolate custard, and a meringue vanilla rum flavored custard layer; topped with whipped cream and chocolate shavings.
Black Forest CakeA three layer genoise sponge cake, soaked with Kirsch; filled with whipped cream and cherries.
Bottle GourdHard-shelled gourd, also known as "white-flowered gourd" and "Calabash gourd."
BoucheesA smaller rendition of Vol-au-vent case pastries.
Boudin NoirBlood sausage, or black pudding
BouillabaisseA French fish stew.
BoulangerBaker
Bouquet Garnia mixture of bay leaves, celery, parsley and thyme, used as a flavoring aid to any cooking liqeur.
BourgeoiseMeats served with vegetables
BourguignonneBurgundy
BoysenberryA cross between a raspberry, blackberry, and a loganberry. Shaped like a large raspberry, with a rich sweet-tart flavour.
BolognaiseUsed to term various dished originated from the Bologna region of Italy. Bolognaise sauce is a thick tomato base sauce with various vegetables and meat.
Bok ChoyThick veined, crinkly leaves that are thin and delicately mild.
BombeAn ice cream dessert comprising of various kinds of ice cream or sherbet, made to freeze in a bomb shaped mould.
Bonne FemmeDishes made to a simple home or family style.
BorecoleAlso called Kale, this is a member of the cabbage family.
BorschtBeet soup, commonly known as borsch. Made with beets, vegetables and meats.
BobwhiteFrom the partridge family, a small game bird. Resembles a small, plump chicken in appearance. White, delicate flesh.
BockwurstGround veal sausage seasoned with minced parsley and chives. German origin.
Bologna Intensely seasoned sausage named after the Italian city of Bologna. Also called baloney.
BonitoA variety of tuna, the smallest in its kind. Moderately fatty, occasionally weighing upwards of 25 pounds. Most flavorful of the tunas.
BorageHerb that has a flavour closely similar to that of a cucumber. Both the flowers and leaves can be used in salads. The leaves are also used to flavour teas and vegetables.
BouillonLiquor primarily used to cook meat, chicken or fish, with mirepoix or aromatic herbs kept on simmer.
BourbonNamed after the Bourbon county in Kentucky. Distilled from a mash of a minimum of 51% corn.
Borsch (Russian)Beet soup, commonly known as borscht. Made with beets, vegetables and meats.
BourikasSavory pastries, made of Freek filo pastry rolls, made of Greek filo pastry rolls.
Bocconcini (Italy)Means ‘ a mouthful ’ . Small nuggets of mozzarella.
Bouquet garniA bunch of herbs that are tied together, used to enhance the flavor of soups or stews.
Boston lettuce:commonly known as butter lettuce. Loosely fit leaves make the head with a sweet, light flavor with a fragile texture.
BoletusWild mushrooms, commonly known for their fine taste and meaty texture.
Bollito MistoVarious cuts of meat added to an Italian stew. Most commonly consisting of zampone, boiled in a broth rich with vegetables.
BoudinSausages of two types that are smooth in texture; Blanc and Noir. Blanc is made of veal, pork and chicken, whereas Noir is made with blood and rice, or potatoes.
BouillabaisseOriginated from Souther France, a rich fish stew.
BourrideFish stew originated from southern France. The broth, consists of large pieces of poached fish, strained and thickened. Served in shallow bowls with bread or croutons.
BraisiereBraising pan.
Brandada (Spanish)technique of cod preparing cod with garlic and olive oil.
Brazil nutFound in a giant tree in the Amazon jungle as a seed. Has a white, rich kernel high in fat. Commonly known as butternut, cream nut or paranut.
BrambleAlso known as blueberry, the largest of wild berries.
BreadfruitA fruit that is up to five inches in radius. Bumpy green skin with a bland cream-colored nucleus.
Breadnut Tree SeedsMulberry tree seeds, grown in Mexico, Central America and the West Indies. Boiled, ground into flour and made as bread.
BranThe outer shell of grains like wheat or oats. Good source of carbs, calcium and fiber, phosphorus.
Brown RiceWhole rice grains sans inedible husk.
Broad BeanFava bean, or horse bean. Looks like a larger lima bean.
BroccoliResembles a cauliflower, with deep greens. Comes in tight bunches of small buds on edible stems.
BrochetteCubes of meat broiled and served on skewer.
Brussels sproutsA mini cabbage.
BratwurstPork and veal seasoned with ginger nutmeg and coriander, made into a German sausage.
BraunschweigerA German liver sausage that is smoked, with eggs and milk added.
BrandyFermented fruit juice aged in oaks, distilled into liquor.
BrutChampagnes that are ‘ extra dry ’
Brodetto (Italy)Originated from Italy ’ s Adriatic coast, a fish soup.
BraiseA method of cooking wherein meat or vegetables are first sauteed in fat or oil, and then kept in a covered pot to simmer with a small amount of cooking liquid for long periods of time.
BreadStaple, made from a dough made of flour, water and dough; fermented, knead, and baked in the oven.
BriocheYeast bun shaped like a small cottage load, in a charlotte mould as breakfast rolls.
BrissoletteBread crouton hollowed out, and filled with various salpicon.
BrandadeSalt cod, olive oil and potatoes; pureed.
BresaolaItaly's cured and dried beef filet, with more delicate texture and stronger flavor than prosciutto.
BrunoiseA fine dice applied to vegetables.
Brandy SnapTube like baked casings made with flavours like brandy, molasses and spices and filled with various creams.
BrestoisCakes of genoise sponge mixed with almonds, lemon and orange zest baked in a brioche mould filled with apricot jelly, coated with apricot glaze    and roasted flaked almonds.
BriouatCylinders of deep fried or baked Phyllo pastry filled with a mixture of ground almonds , cinnamon, sugar, butter and orange flower water. Immerse in warm honey before serving.Brownie:    Majorly of chocolate or butterscotch flavour (sometimes with nuts), this is a dense square of baked dessert.
Brown BettyAn apple or any fruit compote topped with bread crumbs, brown sugar and cinnamon.
Brune KagerCookies flavored with cinnamon ginger, lemon, cloves, corn syrup, and decorated with almonds.
AnpanA sweet roll commonly found in Japan. Prepared containing a variety of fillings, like white beans, sesame and chestnut; with red bean paste being the most widespread.
AppamFerment rice flour poured in a bowl shaped utensil to form thin pancakes in the shape. Carries a neutral taste, goes well with spicy condiments, chutneys or curries.
ArepaGround corn dough or cooked corn flour cooked to resemble the Mesoamerican tortilla and Salvadoran pupusa.
AcharA word for pickles mixed with chilli to give pungent taste and flavor.
AdaiA pan cake sort of food made on a pan, with little oil, a mixture of rice and four different lentils.
AdrakGinger
AmaranthsA kind of grain, a multipurpose nutrition filled leafy crop. Its seeds are called Rajgara. Popular in western-northern India.
AmlaIndian Gooseberry.
AmphoraeA long vintage Greek or Roman jug with two handles and a very narrow neck.
AnnaprasannaA celebratory function at which a child who turned 6 months old is given solid food in an auspicious day.
AppamA soft pan cake with a fat and spongy center, with thinner sides, made from batter of rice.
ApupaDeep fried rice four pancake soaked in jaggery, sugar and tossed with cardamom. Malpua is a variation of apupa, with eggs and mawa.
ArharAlso known as Pigeon pea, it is a kind of protein filled legume.
ArishtaA form of medicated alcohol, used in injury case.
AroidsIt’s a root vegetable. Arbi is a type of Aroids.
ArrackClear distilled spirits made from toddy
AsafoetidaIt is the dried latex projected from the tap root of a 1.5 m tall perennial herb. Commonly used in Asian cooking for flavouring
AsavaFlavored distilled liquor having medical connotation.
AvalPressed rice
AviyalA variety of vegetables such as green bananas, drumsticks, white pumpkin, yam, beans mixed in yoghurt curry
ArugulaKnown as Rocket lettuce, it is pungent smelling plant whose leaves are eaten as a salad.
AngusA breed of cow
Anna PotatoesIt is a classic French dish of sliced, layered potatoes cooked in a very large amount of melted butter.
AppamSimilar to dosa, but made with rice flour and toddy, these are shaped like a curved bowl and are puffier in the middle.
AmbalIt is a sour pumpkin dish made with fish or vegetables, tossed with tamarind, jaggery, cumin seeds.
Avgolemono Egg and lemon mixture used as a sauce or a soup base.
AmarettiBittersweet cookies - made with the same amounts of bitter almonds and regular almonds.
Andare a cichetiCommon snacks which usually goes with a glass of red or white wine
Arborio RiceIt is a variety of short-grained rice used primarily in the classical preparation of risotto. 
Apple corerLeaving the apple whole, the Apple corer removes only the core and the pips.
Appetizer or Hors d'oeuvreAppetizers are small savory tidbits hot or cold, meant as a starter
Alder wood Delicate flavoured wood, used for smoking salmon
Apple/Cherry woodSlightly sweet wood, fruity smoke that's mild enough for chicken or turkey and can flavouring ham
A la Carte Menus A menu is one in which each individual item is listed and priced separately.
AOCApellation d'Origine Controlee
AntojitosCorn dishes mostly referred to as tacos and so on.
ArrozRice
ApertivosAppetizers
AchioteFlavouring and colouring agent.
AvocadoPulpy fruit with a hard center.
AbaisseUsed to describe a technique of pastry making, wherein the pastry sheet or piece should be rolled to a specific thickness based on what it is to be intended to use with
AbaloneA sea snail, with the fresh abalone meat carrying a subtle flavor. Must be tenderized before processing as it has a tough texture
AbattisPoultry winglets
Aberdeen/Arbroath/SmokiesSmall haddocks that are split and gutted, and smoked as a whole after closing again. This Scottish specialty is golden brown and has no head, and can be consumed cold without requiring additional cooking. Goes well with buttered toast or together in a salad
AbsintheA historical pale green liqeur with a very high alcoholic content, distilled from wormwood, anise, and aromatic plants
Acetic AcidVinegar base, produced by fermenting cider and wines
AcerolaFound in areas along the West Indies, a fruit with properties of a cherry. Also known as the Barbados Cherry or the Puerto Rican Cherry, it is rich in Vitamin C
AcidifyThe process of adding an acid like lemon juice or vinegar while cooking
AcidityThe natural existence of an acidic taste in food items
AcidulateAcidifying a preparation to render it slightly sour to taste
AckeeA fruit in the shape of a pear, witha thick red-orange skin and a creamy yellow flesh; the Aril, which is the edible section
Acorn SquashA ribbed winter squash with a dark green skin and mildly sweet orage flesh. The word is of Massachusetts-Indian origin. ‘ A squash’ meaning eaten green
AdvocaatA golden dutch liqeur, concocted with brandy, egg yolks and vanilla flavoring
Agar-agarA product of red seaweed, with gelatin-like strong setting properties
AgneauA sheep aged less than a year
AiguillettesFish meat cut into strips
AilladeA word colloquial in South France, used to describe food that has a dominant garlic flavor
AlbacoreA deep sea fish from the tuna family. Game fish with white meat
AkeeA pear shaped fruit found in West Africa. Toxic when unripe, but ripens to a light colored flesh that resembles scrambled eggs when cooked
A la In the style of
A la carteIndividual food items priced seperately
A la modeIn the fashion
Albondigas con sepia(Spanish): Meatballs with stew of cuttlefish chunk and peas
AlbumenEgg whites
AlbuminThe protein that constitutes parts of milk, egg whites and blood. Soluble in water and other solutions when heated
AlcoholOf Arab origin, the prime ingeredient of wines, spirits and beer; a chemical known as ethyl alchohol
Al denteThe etymology is Italian "to the tooth". In contemporary Italian cooking, the term identifies the ideal consistency for pasta and rice
AleTermed to describe an alcoholic drink brewed from barley malt
Ale PossetAn ancient English drink, made with equal proportions of hot ale and hot milk. Sweetened with sugar and flavored with nutmeg or shredded ginger, consumed hot
AlewifeFish that’s a member of the shad family
A l’AlgerienneA garnish made with whole baby tomatoes braised in oil, and sweet potatoes cooked in butter
Alicante WineRed table wine, sweet and popular in Spain
AioliGarlic oil
AllemandeDished garnished in smoked saussage, sauerkraut, potato dumplings or pickled pork; or dishes served with Allemande Sauce
Alligator PearA term for Avocado in the United States
AllspiceA spice having the flavors of nutmeg, cinnamon and cloves combined
AllumettesMeans matchsticks. Im cooking, to cut the sizes of matches with a knife, usually potatoes
AlmondKernel found in the Almond fruit, with sweet and bitter varieties
Almond EssenceFlavoring agent made from extracting oil out of bitter almonds
AlsacienneGarnish made to prepare suerkraut, ham or Strasbourg Sausages
Alsatian WinesWine with a fruit flavor
Aluminium FoilA sheet of aluminium used in food handling
Amanida CatalanLettuce, tomatoes, carrots, onions and peppers tossed into a salad; topped with eggs, anchovies, tuna or charcuteria
AmbrosiaA love ddessert in Southern America. Mainly consists of thin slices of orange, sprinkled with coconut shreds and sugar
AnchovyA smaller member of the herring family; not more than three inches long
Ancho. Wide Chile pepper
AnchoyadeProvencal dip made from anchovies, oil or wine
Andouille SausageSmoked cajun sausage, made of pork butt, shanks and a small amount of pork fat. Seasoned with salt, cracked black peper and garlic
AndouillettesA coarse sausage made from pig small intestines
Ànec amb figuesDuck roasted in the oven, with figs
Ànec amb peresDuck with pears
AngelicaA herb found in the Alps. The leaves can be used as flavoring stewed fruit; and the oil extracted from the seeds and roots are used in flavoring liqeur and wine
Angel CakeA North American cake, with a light and airy texture
AnglaisIn the style of the English
AngosturaAn aromatic, bitter bark of a small tree found in South America. Used in medicines and beverages
AnimelleAn aromatic, bitter bark of a small tree found in South America. Used in medicines and beverages
AppetizerAppetizer
AperitifFrenchl a drink taken before meals, considered an appetite stimulant
ApfelbettelmannA South German apple pudding
ApfelkuchenA Bavarian apple tart; with an unusual concoction of apples. rum, egg and cream
ApfelstrudelDelicious, flaky, apple puff pastry
AppareilA synonym for mixture; used to mention the preparations involved in the making of a dish
AppleformarScandinavian pies filled with apple, apricot jam and almond slivers
AppenzellDelicately flavored, full fat cheese. Named after the Swiss canton of Appenzell
AquavitScandinavian liquor made from potatoes, or grain; and caraway seeds. The many varieties come from colorless to a light orange, and flavord with numerous herbs and spices
AranygaluskaScandinavian liquor made from potatoes, or grain; and caraway seeds. The many varieties come from colorless to a light orange, and flavord with numerous herbs and spices
ArchbishopA winter drink, often a hot sherry or wine punch
Areca NutAlso called the Betel Nut, the fruit of the areca palm. The red/orange shell is broken to reveal the actual nut, which is a light brown outside a white flesh
ArmagnacWine made from the sandy soil of vineyards, made in one process. Aged in barrels made with Black Gascony Oak that is vital in carrying the distinctive flavour
ArmoricaineA variety of the Brittany Oyster
Arni PsitoRoasted lamb legs. A Greek Delicacy that has a distinct aroma
AromaUsed to describe a fragrance
ArrackA harsh and strong spirit, made by distilling widely available, cheap staples; like fermented rice, dates, grapes or grain
Arròs a bandaTypically a dish of rice and scorpion fish, topped with allioli oven-baked
Arrós negreStuffed squid, served with rice that has been cooked in the cephaloppod ink. Results in the aptly named Black Rice
ArrowrootA pure form of starch, obtained from the root of a plant in the tropics. It is processed by sun-drying, and grinding it to a fine powder. A thickening agent
Arroz empedradoA dish of rice with tomatoes and cod fish, with a layer of white beans over it
ArugulaA herb used in Salads, from the plant of the mustard family. Carries a strong smell and a sharp peppery flavour. The oil extracted has medicinal properties. Also called the rocket, roquette, rocket salad, or rugola
Asbestos MatAsbestos, a grey fiber, is processed into mats. Useful in cooking because of its non-combustible character. Often placed under a saucepan where minimum heat is required, as it reflects heat
Ash BerryA fruit of the mountain ash, a berry of bright red color
Ashe ReshteNoodle soup originated from Persia
Asparagus PeaPods with green wings, consumed when they’re in lengths between one and three inches
AspicClear jelly made from concentrate liquid that has had meat, poultry or fish cooked earlier. The stock carries a strong gelatinous matter, which nulls the requirement for additional gelatin
Assiette AnglaiseA culinary term used to describe an assortment of cold meat served on a plate. Included in most cases are a slice of York ham, a slice of beef tongue, roast beef, and sometimes galantine and brawn
Asti SpumanteItalian sparkling wine. Made from Muscat grapes, found in the vineyards of Asti and neighbouring areas
AsynpoedingSouth African vinegar pudding, an unusual ginger flavoured dessert baked with vinegar flavoured syrup
Athol BroseA Scottish drink made by steeping oatmeal in boiling water, straine, and adding it to whisky, cream and honey
Au BeurreWith butter
Au BlancA french cooking method resulting in white food, made of salted water, lemon juice and flour
Au BranServed and/or cooked with a brown sauce
Au FourIn the Oven
AufschnittA german term for a variety of sausages and other meats found in German delicatessen shops
Au GrasCooked in rich meat gravy or stock
Au GratinCovered in a sauce, with breadcrumbs or grated cheese sprinkled; baked to a golden brown
Au JusMeat served with its natural juices or gravy
Au LaitCooked and/or served with milk
Au MaigreWithout meat or meat stock
Au NaturelPlainly or naturally cooked food
Avgolemono soupA Greek traditional egg and lemon soup
AugolemonoAlternative to Avgolemono soup
Au rougeServed or finished in a red sauce
Au vertServed or finished with green sauce
AwaA Hawaiian beverage that is bitter ang grey-brown. Promises to evoke the ‘ona’; which means "euphoric, relaxed with heightened awareness."
Azerbaijan pilaffA rice dish mildly flavored with sesame seeds and ginger
AzaroleFrom the hawthorne family. The fruit of the azarole tree aids in making preserves and liquer flavors. The fruit looks like a hawthorne, but slightly larger in size. The flesh usually orange-yellow or reddish in colour and has an apple-y flavour
Arborio RiceItalian rice from which risotto is made; a combination of hot stock, rice and chopped onions sauteed in butter
AppamShallow fried pan cake in a particular, small, molded frying vessel
AlsandeThin slender beans prepared with grated coconut and spices
AcerolaA cherry-like fruit from a small tree in the West Indies and adjacent areas. This fruit contains a high concentration of vitamin C. It is also called as “Barbados cherry" and "Puerto Rican cherry."
Adzuki BeanA sweet bean; small and dried
AlfalfaForage plants; the world’s most important. Seeds sprout resembling mung beans
Amaranth Protein nourished weed. The greens have a sweet flavor, and the seeds can be used as cereal, or ground into flour for bread
ArrowheadA Chinese water plant with starchy roots which can be thinly sliced and fried; and added to Chinese dishes
ArtichokeUsed to name three plants that are not related; the globe, Jersusalem and Chinese artichokes
Artichoke HeartTender center of the globe artichoke
ArugulaThis slightly bitter, aromatic salad green (also called "rocket," "Rugula," and "Rucolo") has a peppery mustard flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-looking leaves
Asparagus From the lily family. green with purple-tinged tips
Asparagus BeanA thin legume from the black-eye-pea family. Looks like a cery long bean. Picked at around eighteen inches of size, but can grow to a yard long. Not as sweet or crispy as the green bean
AbaloneAstropod found in the Coastal regions of California, Mexico and Japan. The adductor muscle is the edible part, by which it holds to rocks
AhiA rendition of tuna, with a pale pink flesh and a milk flavor
Alaskan CodA saltwater fish, with a soft textured flesh. High fat content and a mild flavor. Also called as "Sablefish."
AmberjackLean fish found in the South Atlantic, with mild flavour
American BuffaloRaised on game farms. Tender meat and a taste similar to that of lean beef
AnchovyDescribe species of small, silvery fish
Angler FishLarge fish with a firm texture. This salt water fish has a low fat content and a mild, sweet flavor that resembles that of a lobster. Also known as the Monkfish, or the goose-fish
AntelopeA large animal of the deer family, found in Asia, Africa nad Europe. The meat is known as ‘Venison’
Artic BonitoSmall tuna fish with a light colored meat
AwaFish from the Indo-Pacific region with a tender, white fish
A la KingDiced chicken or turkey, in a cream of mushroom, pimentos, green peppers and sherry
AgnolottiDishes made with the small half moon-shaped pasta shells, often fileld with Tortellini
Au GratinFood topped with greated cheese or breadcumbs mixed with butter, and then broiled to a golden brown
Au JusMeat served in its own natural juices
AspartameA substitute for sugar, that is almost twoo hundred times sweeter than sugar. Synthesizde from amino acids, that breaks down and loses sweetness on heating
AnisetteA fairly sweet clear liqeur, made from anise seeds
Aguardiente (Spanish)A hot transparent spirit, distilled from vegetables
Albariño (Spanish)Fresh white wine crisp in taste; name after the primary grape in this Galician wine
Albóndigas (Spanish)Meatballs
Amontillado (Spanish)A type of Sherry or Montilla.
AsadorA restaurant that specializes in roasted meats
BokkaFilled with fruit or chocolate stuffing, and glazed with fruit flavored icing.
BagelA chewy ring shaped bread, often topped with sesame or poppy seeds.
BaguetteAn elongated loaf of bread, made with water, flour, yeast and  salt.
Balep korkumFlat bread made with barley flour, water and baking powder. Cooked in a frying pan.
BammyCassanova root and salt fried in coconut oil. Dipped again in coconut milk after a short while and refried.
Banana breadMashed banana folded into bread.
BannockA flat quickbread made with sodium bicarbonate, which aids to its light and airy texture.
Bara BirthBread containing raisins, currants and candied peel.
Barbari breadPersian flatbread of Iranian origin.
BarmbrackSweeter bread containing sultanas and raisins.
BastoneSimilar to the French baguette, but shorter and thicker. Sesame seeds are used as garnish.
BazlamaFlat and round beer bread.
BhakriCereals and fiber like sorghum, millet or maize mixed to make this round flatbread, typically grayish in color,
BingComparatively thicker than a Mexican tortilla, usually cooked in a griddle.
Black breadMade from grain of rye, has a high fibre content. Dark in color and varies from crispy to dense and chewy in the mouth
BofrotRound bread of various sizes made with white flour.
BolaniPotatoes, lentils, pumpkin and/or other ingredients stuffed in a thin crust bread.
BorodinskyMade with rye flour
BouleResembles a squash ball, has a rustic load shape and is made with any type of flour.
Bread RollShort, oval breads served with butter as an appetizer to or along with a meal.
BreadstickThin long sticks of dry bread.
BriocheBread made of flour, butter and egg.
BoraMade combining cornmeal and either wheat or rye flour, with yeast as a leavening agent.
Brown breadMade using a major portion of whole grain flour, normally rye or wheat.
BaghaTossing together spices or masala one by one in fat before adding the main ingredients.
BerHigh sugar content fruits of zizypus species
Betel leafA digestive leaf, filled with medical benefits, eaten after food in India.
BhangLeaf of Cannabis saliva, whose dried flower is called ‘Ganja’.
BirinjPersian name of rice preparation.
BiryaniSpiced and flavoured rice cooked with masala and meat or chicken or vegetable or seafood.
BuryronA leather skin bag holding ghee from south India to Rome in first two centuries
Byculla souffléA dessert made with egg white, liqueurs, kummel, green chartreuse, orange curacao
BlendTo mix two or more ingredients thoroughly
BreadingTo cover the food to be breaded in flour, and then in beaten egg, and then finally in bread crumbs.
BolognaiseItalian meat sauce
B’stellaMoroccan appetizer, also known as Pastilla, is a puffy pastry tart stuffed with chicken, seafood, vegetables etc.
BulgarBulgar is a cereal food made from parboiled groats of different wheat species.
BelugaA type of caviar, typically light gray to dark gray and mild and buttery.
BhajaMethod of coating any food in a batter of gram flour or besan and deep fried in mustard oil.
BhapCooking using steam or the technique of steaming the food.
BhartaMethod of boiling and mashing the vegetable finely, and then season with spices and mustard oil.
BhunaGrilling food, be it vegetable or meat, covered with whole spices, on high heat.
BalMithaiBrown sweet made from khoya or condensed milk, covered with sugar.
BaadiA sort of bread made from Kwada ka atta (also known as Mandua flour and is black in color).
BaklavaSweet layers of pastry, chopped nuts, and a honey-flavored syrup
BourekakiaFilo puffs made with various fillings
BulgerPar cooked wheat, dried and broken.
Baccalà mantecataCreamed dried cod garnished with olive oil, parsley and garlic (a real favorite) 
BologneseMeat sauce with tomatoes.
Bresaoladried fillet of beef
Brodettoscrumptious fish soup.
Bread KnifeA long and thin knife with a textured blade. The serration ensures that when slicing, the air in the bread is retained, and not pressed and escaped
Bamboo steamerInterlocking bamboo strips fit on top of another with perforated bottoms. The whole apparatus is kept over a pot of simmering water, and cooks food with the steam that passes through the perforations
Bamboo broomBamboo sticks formed into a short broom, tightly packed and tied. It’s commonly used in Chinese kitchens to scrape out food particles in a wok
BabaganoujEggplant, garlic, parsley blended with olive oil and lemon juice
BannetonCoiled read or willow basket available in round, oval or rectangular shapes.
Bain-marieNamed after the Virgin Mary, because of the gentleness.
Baume’ Thermometer: Measures density of various liquids. One scale measures the density of liquids heavier than water and the other, liquids lighter than water
Bear –Claw cultesA named cutler with multiple blades it is used to cut slice for bear-claw pastries
BrunchBetween breakfast and lunch. The menu combines traditional breakfast items and some shorties from the Lunch menu.
BuissonAs per Buisson, food is arranged in a pyramid format.
BroastingIt is the process of frying food items under pressure.
Bakudaikai Large nut produced in Sichuan in China
Barbecue To cook in dry heat over a charcoal or wood fire
BTUBTU refers to the British thermal Unit, the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit
BaadiA form of bread made from Kwadakaatta (also known as Mandua flour and is black in color). It tastes best when served with Gahatkidal.s
Baccalà MantecataCreamed and dried cod with olive oil, parsley and garlic (a real favorite)
BaklavaLayers of phyllo pastry, chopped nuts, and a honey-flavored syrup
BalMithaiA brown coloured sweet made from khoya or condensed milk. It has a sticky texture and is covered entirely with sugar balls
Bamboo broomA short broom of bamboo sticks, tightly packed and tied.
Helps to scrape out food particles attached to a wok.
Bamboo steameMade of interlocking strips of bamboo with perforated bottoms that fit on top of one another. The whole basket is placed over a pot of simmering water where the steam rises through the perforations and cooks the food.
BatilgianAn Armenian word for eggplant
BerbereEthiopia's hot sauce
BhajaA coating of gram flour or besan applied to anything be it vegetable, fish or meat and deep fried in mustard oil.
BhapCooking using steam or simply the technique of steaming the food.
BhartaA method used to cook vegetables like potato, brinjal, pumpkin, beans by first boiling, mashing and later seasoning with spices and mustard oil.
BhunaA term used for grilling vegetables or meat, covered with whole spices, on high heat.
BologneseMeat sauce with tomatoes.
BourekakiaFilo puffs made with various fillings
Bread knifeA straight long and slender knife with a serrated blade, which ensures that the airiness in bread, cakes and sandwiches is retained while slicing.
BresaolaDried fillet of beef
BrodettoDelectable fish soup.
BulgerPar cooked wheat, dried and broken.
BabaA cake with a rich and light texture. Invented by a Polish King in 1704, named it after Ali Baba from “The Thousand and One Nights” after pouring rum on a dry yeast cake. Rose to popularity in Paris by the nineteenth century, commonly known as Baba. Made with flour, yeast, butter, and eggs in round moulds of different sizes, and soaked in rum or kirsch flavored syrup.
Baba Ghanoush(Arabic) Tahini, olive oil, lemon juice and garlic puree mixed with a minced char-grilled eggplant
BabacoOriginated from Ecuador – an edible skin that turns to a golden yellow from green on ripening.
BacalhauA dish made from Salt Cod, home to Portuguese Culture.
BaconMeat taken from the back and sides of a pig, that is smoked and cured. The fat adds a sweet flavor and a tender crips, accounts to almost two-thirds of the total weight.
Bacalou (Spanish)Codfish, salted or otherwise.
Baghali PoloA rice dish consisting of Lamb and dill, seasoned with aromatic spices.
Bagna CaudaA bain-marie (ban mah- ree) is a large, shallow pan half-filled with hot water in which smaller pans containing food items which cannot be reheated on direct heat are put to keep hot until required. This may be heated through gas or electric power
Bain-MarieA double boiler, often used to keep smaller pans with food that cannot be reheated on direct heat to be kept warm until served.
BallotineA boneless leg of poultry that is stuffed.
BannocksLarge, round cakes or scones, made from oatmeal, wheat or barley. Origin – Scotland.
BanyulsRed, rose or white French; sweet, dessert wine.
BapsSoft cottish breakfast rolls made from flour, milk, sugar, yeast and butter.
BarbelCarp family river fish, named after its physical traits – fleshy filaments that hang from its mouth, resembling a barbel.
BarberryBerries from the berberis plant.
BardPlacing slices of bacon or pork over the breast of poultry, to sustain moisture and flavor while cooking.
Barm BrackAn everyday fruit loaf made with yeast. Irish tradition.
BarquettesOval or bat shaped french pastry shells, with choice of filling inside.
BarracoutaLarge salt water fish with rough scales.
BarsacA sweet white wine, made from a sub-are called Sauternes in Bordeaux.
BassFamily of fish, that are voracious sea and river fish, with fins that resemble spines.
BasteApplying fat to the meat in the over, thereby preventing over-dryness.
Bath BunsTraditionally originated in the English spa of bath from the 18thcentrury, these buns have an uneven shape topped with a lump of sugar.
Bath ChapSimilar to bacon, the lower half of a pig’s chap and commonly consumed cold.
Battenburg cakeA dual colored sponge cake in a checkerboard pattern, usually iced with almond paste.
BavaroisSoft egg custard combined with gelatin, flavoring and whip cream.
Balsam PearAlso known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, a fruit of a tropical climber found in African and Asian continents.
Barbados cherryAlso called Acerola or Puerto Rican Cherry. A fruit obtained from a small tree in the West Indies and adjacent areas. Rich in vitamin C.
Baking PowderPrimarily sodium bicarbonate, or sodium acid carbonate. The powder also contains an acid like salt crystals that dissolve in water.
BarleyHardy grain, used in cereals, breads, and soups.
Barbecue SauceSauces used to marinate or over grilled meat, commonly made with tomatoes, onions, garlic, mustard, brown sugar, vinegar and beer.
BaraccudaA type of fish with a rigid texture and moderate fat. Resembling a pike, with long pointy jaws and sharp teeth.
Baking SodaUsed in baking, and mixed with an acidic ingredient like yoghurt or molasses. An acid and base chemical reaction produces Carbon Dioxide as bubbles, making the dough rise.
Balsamic VinegarItalian vinegar derived from White Trebbiano grapes, after aging for several years.
BasilHerb used for seasoning with a pungent flavor.
BallotineA dish made by stuffing forcemeat into a boneless leg of poultry.
Bavarian CreamPastry cream made with whipped cream, and gelatin for stablization. Poured into molds, or as filling in baking.
BatterUsed as a coating for foods, a combination of flour, liquid and other ingredients.
BeechnutFruit of the beech tree, triangular in shape. Carries flavors crossing a hazelnut and a chestnut.
Beef TeaSlow simmering beef, thereby extracting an essence.
Bean CurdSoya beans that have been cooked, pureed and pressed; cut into 3 inch square cakes that are half an inch thick.
Bearnaise SauceClassic French sauce made with a reduction of vinegar, wine, tarragon and shallots and finished with egg yolks and butter.
Bechamel SauceLight white sauces. White sauce is a mixture of milk or cream with a white roux, for example.
Bean SproutsTender sprouts of germinated beans.
Bean ThreadsA variation of Chinese or Glass noodles. Translucent in nature, made from mung bean starch. Also known as Cellophane Noodles.
BeansSeeded pods of legumes.
BeetA firm, round-rooted vegetable with nutritious leafy greens.
Bell PepperShaped like a bell, a mild and sweet pepper. Crips and juicy in nature, found in yellow, green, red, orange, purple and brown colors.
BearA large quadruped primarily found in the west, and the Artic. Bear meet is cooked similar to beef.
Beef tartareCoarsely ground beef that is seasoned. Commonly served with a raw egg placed on top with herbs.
BeefMeet from cows and bulls under two years old.
BeefaloA cross with the buffalo and cattle, with the beef strain being stronger. Comparitively leaner than beef and the dark red meat has a stronger flavor.
BeerwurstGerman cooked sausage with a garlic flavor.
Belly-FishLow fat salt water fish. Large in size, has a sweet, mild flavor similar to that of a lobster.
BenedictineVarious aromatics like fruit peels and herbs added to a cognac. Named after Benedictine monks who invented it in the 16thCentury.
BeerAn alcoholic beverage that is brewed from malted marley and cereals mixed with yeast. Hops are used as flavorings, retaining its low alcohoic content.
BEIJING BLAST (Chinese)A salt free mix of black and white sesame seeds, green and pink peppercorns; poppy seeds and hot chillies.
Beignets (French)Fritters
Beurre BlancA creamy emulsion made from butter flavoring as a butter sauce.
Beurre Manie"Kneaded butter." ; Mixing flour and butter in equal parts, commonly used to thicken gravies and sauces.
Beurre Noisette"Hazelnut butter" or "brown butter." Whole butter that has been heated until browned.
Belle HeleneDessert made from ice cream, chocolate sauce and poached pear. Also a term for garnishing grilled meat in French cookery.
Bisbalenc (Spanish)Puff pastry shaped like a barrel, with a sweet zucchini filling topped with pine nuts.
Bikini (Spanish)A kind of toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
BisqueA thick cream soup or puree made from shellfish.
Bitter MelonA fruit of a tropical climber found in African and Asian continents. It is similar to a cucumber and is used as a vegetable. Also called "Balsam pear" or "bitter gourd."
Bib LettuceButter head lettuce, having loose white-green leaves; with a mild flavor.
Birds Nest (Chinese)Literally a Bird’s nest, made of regorged spittle of a certain breed of swallow.
Black Bun (Scottish)Fruit cake with raisins, currants, finely chopped peel, almonds, ginger and brown sugar, with cinnamon added to it.
Black WalnutA highly fat walnut black in colour
BlackberryLargest of wild berries, up to one inch long when fully mature.
BlueberryBlue-black berries, smooth skinned and round. Juicy and sweet in taste.
Black BeansAlso known as turtle beans, cream colored sweet flesh with black skin.
Black RaddishBlack coloured radish from the plants grown chiefly for their pungent peppery root.
Black SalsifyPopularly known as Scorzonera, a black skinned version of salsify. Most commonly greyish or a pale gold in color.
Black Turtle BeansAlso known as "turtle beans," cream colored sweet flesh with black skin. Its sweet flavor forms the base for black bean soup.
Black-Eyed PeansBeige colored beans with a round black ‘eye’ located along the inner curve.
BlanchTo dip food temporarily in boiling water, and then to cold to halt the cooking process.
BlanquetteWhite stew Ragout made from lamb, veal, or chicken with a rich veloute sauce.
BleachWhitening through chemicals or sun's rays.
BlintzA thin pancake, resembling a crepe. Rolled up add fillings of sweet or savory tastes; commonly ricotta, fruits or meat.
Black PuddingCommonly known as ‘blood sausage’. Cooked links of large sausage, primarily made of pig’s blood, suet, oatmeal and/or bread crumbs.
Black CodSaltwater fish with high fat and a mild flavor. Not a true cod.
BlackfishA lean, delicately flavoured sea fish.
Blood SausageAlso known as "blood pudding". Cooked links of large sausage, primarily made of pig’s blood, suet, oatmeal and/or bread crumbs. It is generally sold precooked.
Blue CrabCrab with blue claws and a dark blue-green shell.
Bluefin TunaOne of the largest varieties of tuna, weighing over a thousand pounds. Flesh turns to dark red with a stronger flavor on ageing.
BluefishA fine textured fish that is fatty. Also known as ‘bulldog of the ocean’.
BluegillNorth American freshwater fish. Famous for their bright colors, related to the perch family.
Bloody MaryA cocktail drink containing vodka, lemon juice, Worcestershire sauce and Tobasco, along with Pepper and V8, with tomato or cocktail juice.
Blanco/WhiteClassic light wine, with shades turning from yellow to gree or golden hues.
Blendto mix thoroughly, with speed or tools not of essence.
BlackjackSlang for gravy browning, often made by caramelizing sugar.
BloaterSalted and lightly smoked herring.
Blue PointSmall-size oyster.
Black Bottom PieA pie with a filling of dark chocolate custard, and a meringue vanilla rum flavored custard layer; topped with whipped cream and chocolate shavings.
Black Forest CakeA three layer genoise sponge cake, soaked with Kirsch; filled with whipped cream and cherries.
Bottle GourdHard-shelled gourd, also known as "white-flowered gourd" and "Calabash gourd."
BoucheesA smaller rendition of Vol-au-vent case pastries.
Boudin NoirBlood sausage, or black pudding
BouillabaisseA French fish stew.
BoulangerBaker
Bouquet Garnia mixture of bay leaves, celery, parsley and thyme, used as a flavoring aid to any cooking liqeur.
BourgeoiseMeats served with vegetables
BourguignonneBurgundy
BoysenberryA cross between a raspberry, blackberry, and a loganberry. Shaped like a large raspberry, with a rich sweet-tart flavour.
BolognaiseUsed to term various dished originated from the Bologna region of Italy. Bolognaise sauce is a thick tomato base sauce with various vegetables and meat.
Bok ChoyThick veined, crinkly leaves that are thin and delicately mild.
BombeAn ice cream dessert comprising of various kinds of ice cream or sherbet, made to freeze in a bomb shaped mould.
Bonne FemmeDishes made to a simple home or family style.
BorecoleAlso called Kale, this is a member of the cabbage family.
BorschtBeet soup, commonly known as borsch. Made with beets, vegetables and meats.
BobwhiteFrom the partridge family, a small game bird. Resembles a small, plump chicken in appearance. White, delicate flesh.
BockwurstGround veal sausage seasoned with minced parsley and chives. German origin.
BolognaIntensely seasoned sausage named after the Italian city of Bologna. Also called baloney.
BonitoA variety of tuna, the smallest in its kind. Moderately fatty, occasionally weighing upwards of 25 pounds. Most flavorful of the tunas.
BorageHerb that has a flavour closely similar to that of a cucumber. Both the flowers and leaves can be used in salads. The leaves are also used to flavour teas and vegetables.
BouillonLiquor primarily used to cook meat, chicken or fish, with mirepoix or aromatic herbs kept on simmer.
BourbonNamed after the Bourbon county in Kentucky. Distilled from a mash of a minimum of 51% corn.
Borsch (Russian)Beet soup, commonly known as borscht. Made with beets, vegetables and meats.
BourikasSavory pastries, made of Freek filo pastry rolls, made of Greek filo pastry rolls.
Bocconcini (Italy)Means ‘a mouthful’. Small nuggets of mozzarella.
Bouquet garniA bunch of herbs that are tied together, used to enhance the flavor of soups or stews.
Boston lettuce:commonly known as butter lettuce. Loosely fit leaves make the head with a sweet, light flavor with a fragile texture.
BoletusWild mushrooms, commonly known for their fine taste and meaty texture.
Bollito MistoVarious cuts of meat added to an Italian stew. Most commonly consisting of zampone, boiled in a broth rich with vegetables.
BoudinSausages of two types that are smooth in texture; Blanc and Noir. Blanc is made of veal, pork and chicken, whereas Noir is made with blood and rice, or potatoes.
BouillabaisseOriginated from Souther France, a rich fish stew.
BourrideFish stew originated from southern France. The broth, consists of large pieces of poached fish, strained and thickened. Served in shallow bowls with bread or croutons.
BraisiereBraising pan.
Brandada (Spanish)technique of cod preparing cod with garlic and olive oil.
Brazil nutFound in a giant tree in the Amazon jungle as a seed. Has a white, rich kernel high in fat. Commonly known as butternut, cream nut or paranut.
BrambleAlso known as blueberry, the largest of wild berries.
BreadfruitA fruit that is up to five inches in radius. Bumpy green skin with a bland cream-colored nucleus.
Breadnut Tree SeedsMulberry tree seeds, grown in Mexico, Central America and the West Indies. Boiled, ground into flour and made as bread.
BranThe outer shell of grains like wheat or oats. Good source of carbs, calcium and fiber, phosphorus.
Brown RiceWhole rice grains sans inedible husk.
Broad BeanFava bean, or horse bean. Looks like a larger lima bean.
BroccoliResembles a cauliflower, with deep greens. Comes in tight bunches of small buds on edible stems.
BrochetteCubes of meat broiled and served on skewer.
Brussels sproutsA mini cabbage.
BratwurstPork and veal seasoned with ginger nutmeg and coriander, made into a German sausage.
BraunschweigerA German liver sausage that is smoked, with eggs and milk added.
BrandyFermented fruit juice aged in oaks, distilled into liquor.
BrutChampagnes that are ‘extra dry’
Brodetto (Italy)Originated from Italy’s Adriatic coast, a fish soup.
BraiseA method of cooking wherein meat or vegetables are first sauteed in fat or oil, and then kept in a covered pot to simmer with a small amount of cooking liquid for long periods of time.
BreadStaple, made from a dough made of flour, water and dough; fermented, knead, and baked in the oven.
BriocheYeast bun shaped like a small cottage load, in a charlotte mould as breakfast rolls.
BrissoletteBread crouton hollowed out, and filled with various salpicon.
BrandadeSalt cod, olive oil and potatoes; pureed.
BresaolaItaly's cured and dried beef filet, with more delicate texture and stronger flavor than prosciutto.
BrunoiseA fine dice applied to vegetables.
Brandy SnapTube like baked casings made with flavours like brandy, molasses and spices and filled with various creams.
BrestoisCakes of genoise sponge mixed with almonds, lemon and orange zest baked in a brioche mould filled with apricot jelly, coated with apricot glaze and roasted flaked almonds.
BriouatCylinders of deep fried or baked Phyllo pastry filled with a mixture of ground almonds , cinnamon, sugar, butter and orange flower water. Immerse in warm honey before serving.Brownie: Majorly of chocolate or butterscotch flavour (sometimes with nuts), this is a dense square of baked dessert.
Brown BettyAn apple or any fruit compote topped with bread crumbs, brown sugar and cinnamon.
Brune KagerCookies flavored with cinnamon ginger, lemon, cloves, corn syrup, and decorated with almonds.
BroilingCooking with dry heat.
BlanchTo cook partially and briefly in hot water or hot oil
BoilTo cook bubbling hot liquid
BraiseTo cook in its own liquor or small quantity of liquid, with or without browning
BakeTo cook by dry heat in the oven or on in a hot closed surface.
BatterTo stir or beat a mixture of dry ingredients and liquid.
BindTo hold food together by adding an ingredient
BeatTo introduce air into a mixture to make it fluffier.
BlanchTo put into boiling water, either to remove skin or to whiten.
BlendCombining all ingredients thoroughly until smooth
BasmatiA slender, thin type of rice
Black and Red riceRare Asian grains with black or red husk and bran coverings.
BannetonCoiled willow basket in round, oval or rectangular shapes.
BOTBar order Ticket
BHCBranch hygiene Code
BurritosBurrito' or Little donkey' is a large 12 inch flour tortilla.
BolillosMexican bread rolls.
BiznagaCandid cactus.
Canadian WhiteProtein rich, thick, sliced sandwich bread.
CesnicaA Christmas ritual, with a silver coin in the dough as a sign of good luck. The person who finds the solid silver coin in their slice of bread is considered to be the most fortunate for the year to follow.
ChallahWheat flour, yeast, oil and eggs formed into dough and braided.
Christmas WaferThin wafers embossed with figurines of Christian Identities, like Jesus, or Virgin Mary.
CiabattaBroad, flat Italian bread made from wheat flour and yeast, elongated.
Colombia PasqualeFlour, eggs, sugar and natural yeast made with butter and candied peel to form a dough; which is then sculpted to the shape of a dove, and then topped with pearl sugar and almonds prior to baking.
Coppia FerrareseFlour, lard, olive and malted mixed to make a twisted sourdough bread.
CornbreadBaked or fried, with a golden crust and a moist interior.
Cottage loafTwo spherical balls, one slightly larger than the other; squashed together. Resembling the shape of a cottage.
CrapeThin pancakes with stuffing inside the flour and egg dough. Variety of fillings can be included, like cheese, asparagus, ham, spinach, eggs, ratatouille, mushrooms, artichoke or meat product.
Crisp breadVery dry bread, primarily made from whole wheat rye flour, salt and water.
CrumpetChewy, spongy griddle cake with a flat top and small pores. Made with flour and yeast, the shape comes from being kept in the pan by the shallow ring.
Cuban breadSimilar to French bread and Italian bread.
Curry breadA piece of dough which is wrapped over japanese curry, and deep fried after coating with flaky bread crumbs.
CalamondinA citrus fruit, look like small orange or lime.
CauldronsA big metal pot (kettle) with a large mouth, used for cooking over an open fire and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger.
ChakkiA kind of flour mill machine with two circular grinding stone held slight apart, vertically or horizontally, to de-husking or grinding of various grains
ChhanaAcidification of milk by lemon or other mild acid to make cottage cheese.
ChidvaBitten rice or rice flake
ChikkiJaggery mixed with nuts and/or dry fruits or seeds to set as a hard ball or slab like shape.
ChironjiA small dried seeds taken from the husk of a bush called Buchanania lanzan.
ChulahA mud fire place or oven.
ChurningThe process of making homemade butter by using a stick and a rope
ChutneyA grounded paste made from different ingredients, with the base as coconut or several lentils and flavoured with chillies, raw mangoes.
ChopTo cut food into irregular small pieces
CrimpTo pinch together in order to seal
CarpaccioCarpaccio is an Italian dish of raw meat or fish, thinly sliced or pounded thin and served mainly as an appetizer.
Crème fraicheFresh cream that has been set with culturing or souring agent.
ConfitVegetables or meat or poultry cooked & preserved in its own fat.
CaramelizedCooking the sugar till it advances into a dark brownish color.
CrepinetteFatty veil that encases the cuts of a pig.
CornetA cone like pastry prepared with brick pastry, highly similar to the spring roll pastry.
CilantroCoriander leaves
CrostiniSlices of a bread cut into different shapes and toasted with the topping
ChermoulaUsed to flavor fish, and other kinds of meat.
CureProcess of preserving food by either the methods of dry or liquid curing.
CaviarRoe of a sturgeon fish.
CarambolaStar fruit
CandyingNuts frosted by chilling with bitten egg white, and coated with castor sugar.
CassouletStew made of beans and a variety of meats.
ChunamSlacked lime
ClaretDark red wine from Bordeaux, France
ColodtrumsThick milk of dairy animals soon after birth of the calf.
CurdYoghurt
CharchariUnique char-flavoured vegetable dish of Bangladesh and India, where vegetables are cut into thin strips.
ChhenchkkMethod used to cook and flavor vegetables and sometimes their peels with panchphoran or mustard seeds or cumin, onion and garlic can also be used.
ChainsooDish prepared by using black gram dal.
CabbageA French word caboche, meaning “head”. Varying shapes and colours, they even come in different sizes.
CaffeineA mild stimulant of an Alkaloid substance found in tea and coffee
CailleteA faggot made of liver, meat, herbs, etc.
CalabreseType of broccoli, bluish green with compact flowers.
CalipashThe fatty meat from the upper shell of the turtle, attained in the form of canned goods or dried.
CalciumA mineral that is needed for healthy bones and teeth
CalorieUnit of energy used to denote nutritional values of food.
CalvadosAn apple brandy
Ca MarchéTo inform the chefs’ that an order is to follow.
CanapéA small open sandwich that is served as a snack, cut into various shapes , plain, toasted or fried.
CandenasBox enclosing the individual nobleman’s cutlery in medieval times.
Canelonestiny stuffed rolls of pastry or rice.
Cannellini beanA big white Italian kidney bean.
Cannellonitubes of pasta, stuffed and served in a sauce.
Canola oilAlso called rapeseed oil. Low in saturated fat and it has mono saturated fat, helps in cholesterol control.
CantaloupeLarge netted type of melon with light orange flesh.
Capilotademinced (ragout/stew) game or chicken.
CapalinType of caviar attained from a small member of the salmon family found in the Arctic Ocean.
CapercaillieLarge game bird of the grouse family, now farm-reared in Scotland.
CapillaireAn assortment of fern used to be used to flavour stock syrup.
CapilotadeStew made with chicken and mushrooms
Caponcastrated fattened chicken which causes it to put on weight.
CaponataStew of onion, eggplant, tomato, pimento, celery and olives, made like ratatouille.
CapsicumAlso called pimento or pepper; found in green, yellow, red and white.
Caramelwater and sugar boiled and reduced to make a soft toffee like golden brown liquid
Caramelizecooking to issue natural sugars, reaching brown colour
Carawayseeds that look like cumin or celery seeds.
CarbohydrateA nutrient which has three main groups; sugar, starch and cellulose
Carbon dioxideA gas produced by all raising agents
Carbonnadebraised steak
CarcasseBone structure without the meat
CardamomAromatic spice, small green pod with black seeds inside .member of the ginger family.
Carpacciothin slices of raw meat, sprinkled with olive oil and served with capers, mustard or mayonnaise sauce.
CarreRack of veal or lamb
CarreletFlounder
Cartouchea round of paper used to cover meats during cooking process, often smeared with oils
CassisBlack currant & black currant liquer
CassouletA stew of beans baked with pork or other meats and seasonings.
CasseroleAn earthenware dish closed by a lid
CaraqueLightly spread heated chocolate, set and scraped into curls for decoration.
CarbonnadeStew prepared by thin beef steaks roasted in beer with onions.
CarboonVegetable of the thistle family, like leek and celery.
Carpetbag steaksteak cut open to form a pocket into which raw oyster are placed.
CarrageenPurple-coloured seaweed- a substitute for gelatine.
Carte du JourDaily menu of the table d’hôte type, priced by the meal, not the dish.
Cashew nutsCrescent shaped nuts served as appetiser.
CassataCandied fruits with nuts kept in cream ices of various flavours.
CassavaRoot of a tropical bush ground as a staple food, and deposit is made into tapioca.
CasseroleEnclosed earthware dish used for cooking and serving.
CassonadeSoft brown sugar used as coffee, which it gives a slightly spicy flavour.
CassouletOven-coked dish of goose, pork and haricot beans- a form of stew.
CaulAmniotic membrane covering an animal’s intestine- used for covering cromesquis, faggots, etc., before cooking.
Cayenne pepperVery solid ground pepper, prepared from chillies.
Chantillywhipped cream- sugared
CharcutierButcher and sausage maker
CalabacitaA variety of summer squash found in Mexican cooking. 
CalamariThe Italian word for squid. 
Caldo VerdePortuguese soup prepared with cabbage, potatoes, broth, and olive oil. 
Calzonea type of pizza that is folded in half before cooking to contain a filling.
CannoliA crunchy pastry tube stuffed with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and candied fruit.
CaperCapers are pickled flower buds, which are used in sauces and as condiments for smoked fish and Nicosia salad. 
CapicollaA highly seasoned, cold, thinly sliced and coarse Italian pork sausage.
Caul FatMembrane of animal organs, used as a casing for sausages and other meat. 
Caviareggs of sturgeon, salted and cured.
CeciRound, irregular shape of beans- also called "chick-peas". Used in salads, soups, and stews.
Cellophane NoodleGlassy Chinese noodles made from starch of mung beans.
CeleriacThe root of a special celery, tasting like a cross between parsley and a strong celery. Used in soups, stews, and purees.
CeleryPopular vegetable, growing in leaved ribs surrounding a tender heart. Eaten raw and used in soups, stews, and casseroles.
Cellophane NoodleGlassy Chinese noodle, which aren’t true noodles, but are made from the starch of mung beans.
CeltuseLettuce that is like celery and lettuce- can be eaten raw or cooked.
Cellophane NoodleREPEATED.
Celery SeedA strong flavoured seed of the wild celery called lovage, should be used sparingly. Used in meat dishes, soup etc.
Celery SaltA seasoning made of celery seed and salt.
Celery SeedREPEATED.
Celery SaltREPEATED.
CelluloseThe grainy arrangement of fruit, vegetables and cereals
CervenaMeat from New Zealand farmed deer
CelsiusThe centigrade temperature scale invented by A.Celsius(1701-44).
CepeFlap mushroom; thick, fleshy and moist.
CerfVenison, specifically stag and deer.
CervelasFrench smoked sausages like a saveloy, made of pork, and fish such as pike.
CerfeuilFrench for Chervil, used to garnish.
CevicheRaw fish marinated in lemon and lime juices with onion rings.
CharcuterieButcher shop
ChateaubriandDouble steak cut from the beef tenderloin
Chaud-froidHot and Cold.
Chef de CuisineChef in charge
Chef de partieChef in charge of a section of the kitchen
ChiffonnadeA ribbon like cut of leafy vegetables, like lettuce.
ChinoiseA cone- shaped strainer or sieve
Chipolatasmall sausage or a pastry used for eclairs
Choucroutepickled cabbage
ClouterOnion cloute; an onion studded with cloves
CocotteA small oven proof dish
CommisStudent in the kitchen or dining room
CompoteStewed fruit
Concasserto chop roughly
CoquilleCooked and served in a shell
CoupeA thin glass used to serve ice cream, fruit and chantilly cream
CroissantsCrescent shaped French rolls
Croquettebreaded, deep-fried
Croustadepastry crust
CrepeA thin pancake.
CroutonsSlices of bread which are cut into numerous varying sizes and shapes, fried and used as a garnish.
Cacciatoreblack or green olives, Italian wine, mushrooms cooked with meat or game dishes in a spicy tomato sauce and herbs – basically a hunters dish.
Calazoneliterally means “stuffed stocking” - a type of pizza that is folded in half before cooking to contain a filling, usually cheese and meat.
CassataVarious varying layers of multiple flavors of rich ice cream made with nuts and fruits with pastry crust.
Cichetti e l'ombraCichetti are small bites or plates of food whereas l’ombra is a glass of wine 
Coppa Saltcured, sweet & fragrant neck of pork from Northern Italy.
Cremasweet dessert or a thick creamy soup.
ColanderOriginated from the Latin word ‘colum’ it means to sieve. A bowl shaped utensil with holes in it, used to drain water out.
Cutting boardsA board on which food can be cut, so as to avoid damage to the kitchen counter. Available in wood and plastic materials
Chef’s knifeOne of the more essential and versatile tools in kitchen equipment. A wide triangular blade tapers to the tip in the center, which makes tasks like mincing, slicing, foods to disjointing larger cuts of meat
Cookie cutterA tool that comes in various shapes, with sharp edges that are used to cut cookie dough to form decorative figures
Cling filmA thin plastic film made of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), used in sealing food.
ChinoisA metal strainer with the shape of a cone, containing a very fine mesh that is good for straining sauces, soups and custards
Cuisine BourgeoiseFrench for dishes made for family meals without a recipe, mainly those made with braised meat
ChilliesMembers of the pepper family.
ChinoisA rigid cone shaped strainer of perforated metal used to strain sauces and soups.
Convection ovenA convection oven circulates hot air with a fan.
CuisineStyle of food as well as the manner in which it is prepared and served
Cyclic MenuCyclic Menu is one that changes every day for a certain period.
CoreTo remove the inner portion.
CreamBeating fat and sugar so that air breaks the sugar crystals and softens the fat.
Chinoisconical sieve with an extremely fine mesh, used to strain sauces and soups.
CDPChef De partie
Cazuelas and OllasTraditional Mexican earthenware, casseroles and claypots.
CilantroFresh coriander.
Carne Molida Cruda Literally 'meat ground raw'
ChimichangasStuffed, tortillas folded from four sides and deep fried.
Carne Meat
ChayoteSquash
Crema-AgriaMexican cream
ChorizaMexican sausage.
DamperWheat flour dough baked in Charcoal.
DampfnudelA dense bread with a white surface, moist in texture.
DinkelbrotBread made up of 90% coarse meal
DockThumping or punching into dough with a smooth round, pencil sized stick; thus forming vertical impression and allowing for gases to escape during baking.
DredgeTo coat with crumbs, flour, sugar or corn meal
DaliaBroken grain, like wheat, Rice, Bengal gram etc
DhalDe- husked and split lentils.
DhenkiFoot-pounder for de-husking paddy
DhoklaMix of Rice flour and besan, fermented overnight with curd and steamed in slabs.
DrumstickPods that are long and have soft inner seeds.
DosaThin Pancakes made in a pan, with a fermented batter of black gram lentil and rice
DalnaMixed vegetables with thick gravy and seasoned with ground spices and ghee.
DiplesStrips of dough tied, folded into bows or loops, deep-fried, dipped in honey syrup and topped with chopped nuts
Domato SoupTomato soup.
DolmadesGrape leaves or vine leaves stuffed with rice, pine nuts and herbs and other seasoning.
Demijohna bulging narrow necked bottle that can hold 3 to 10 gallons of liquid, usually kept in a wicker cover.
DabFound in the North-Eastern Atlantic, this flat fish has a broken back.
DageA food of Indonesian origin, made by the process of bacteria fermentation; from a variety of seeds. It uses the byproduct of nuts like the groundnut, or vegetable waste, after they have been pressed to derive oil.
DalProminent in Indian Cuisine; Split pulse.
DamsonOval plum
DandelionFrom the Chicory family, a Wild plant with edible Leaves, roots and flowers
DarneA slice of a large fit with an inclusion of the bone of the center section.
DashiFlakes of dried bonito simmered to make Japanese soup stock, with pieces of giant kelp added
Danish PastryA technique similar to that of making croissants, Yeast dough made with milk and eggs; with butter folded to it. It’s cut into small sheets and typically filled with a variety of fillings
DaubeFrench culinary term, meaning either a way of cooking or a style of dish.
DeglazeDiluting the concentrated juices in the pan where meat, poultry, fish or game is roasted or braised; commonly with stock, wine, cream or juice from fruits or vegetables.
DenaturationCulinary term, to describe the reaction of protein at the initial process of being heated; or a result of acidification, violet agitation, or being cooled beyond a temperature that is critical
DewberrySmall fruits with few large duplets, with a purple bloom covering it.
DhansakIndian dish; meat cooked with vegetables and lentils.
Dibs (Arabic)Sweet, thick syrup made from boiling grape juice.
Dinuguan (Fillipino)Cooked in blood, vinegar, garlic and hot peppers, a meat stew.
DittanderType of herb; Pepper Grass
DogfishA common name given to the smaller varieties of shark species in different languages.
Doggy bagFood served and packed in a bag, not consumed immediately.
Doner kebabThin slices of marinated meat packed on a vertical spit with the help of its fat, forming a big, solid mass. Pieces of meat are shaved down as the outer layer of the meat. Thin slices of marinated lamb packed tightly onto a vertical spit to form a solid mass and thus roasted, pieces of meat being cut off the outside as it browns.
DosaA pancake made from rice and lentil. A crispy outer surface with a slightly spongy texture within; traditionally served with sambhar and coconut chutney.
DoughnutA ball or ring of soft dough deep fried. It can be bettered with eggs, softened with yeast or baking powder, and commonly sprinkled with powdered sugar afterwards.
DrisheenBlood pudding made from beef and sheep blood.
DrupeA collective category term for fruits with a single stone or seed around the flesh. The stone is called a nut if edible. Example: apricot, almond, cherry, mango.
DuqqaSesame, cumin, salt, pepper, coriander seeds, cumin, salt, pepper and hazelnuts pounded together.
Duxelles (French)Onions and shallots in butter used to Sautee chopped mushrooms, flavored with herbs.
DowelsHardwood cylindrical without handles used to rolling out dough
DieteticsStudy of food in promotion and maintenance of health.
Deep FryTo cook submerged in hot fat
DeglazeSwirling liquid in a sauté pan.
DiceTo cut into small cubes.
DustingCoating with sprinkling of sugar, spices, flour etc.,
DotScattering small amount of butter, nuts, chocolate etc., over the surface of the food.
DOCDenominazione di Origine Controllata
DOCGDenominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita
EmusionBlending of two immiscible liquids
EmpanadaFood items covered with bread dough and then cooked.
EmulsionA blend of two liquids with different consistency where tiny droplets are formed, and evenly dispersed in the other, unlike a mixture.
EnokitakeA convex cap long thin mushroom
Ensaimada (Spanish)An airy, sweet yeast bun made containing the highest quality of pork lard. Originated in Majorca.
EpazoteMexican herb, with a very strong flavor.
The intensity of the flavor increases with age.
In the Food and Beverage context, best food and wine. Derived from the Greek philosopher Epicures.
EscabecheServed cold, fried chicken or fish which has been in marination in vinegar.
ExplorateurFrench triple crème cheese. Made in the shape of a thick disc shape and a white bloom on its rind. Has a creamy texture and flavor.
ExtractsConcentrated flavorings extracted from an ingredient.
Egg slicerA tool with thin parallel wires to provide perfectly sliced hard-boiled eggs. A slot for the egg to be held, and another plate with the wires are hinged to it, that slices the eggs as you close the plate
EtameCone shaped strainer with a fair and soft mesh
En Papillote Cooking food in its own vapour by using aluminum foil or leaf
EnsaladaSalad
Farl Bread similar to French baguette
FlatbreadA flat circular bread
FougasseBread sculpted in the shape of an ear of wheat.
FrybreadFlat dough leavened with yeast or bicarbonate of soda, deep or shallow fried in oil or shortening.
FermentationThe process of sugar and starches acting in the dough to produce carbon dioxide gas and alcohol, resulting in expansion of the dough.
FoldTo mix two or more ingredients together with a cutting and folding motion.
FatoushLebanese salad of garden greens, cheese and tossed bread croutons
FaloodaA cold dessert popular in India, made from mixing rose syrup, vermicelli, sweet basil seeds, and pieces of jelly with milk, often topped off with a scoop of ice cream.
FeniDistilled liquor made from the fruits of cashew.
FakkesA lentil soup in tomato base.
FasolathaTomato based navy bean soup
FinikiaAlso known as Melomakarouna. Oblong, honey-dipped cookies coated with chopped nuts
FocacciaOnion and olive bread
FrittataCooked on one side and then tossed over so both the top and the bottoms are of a golden brown.
FadgeGrilled round cakes made from mashed potatoes, flour and seasoning.
FaggotA mixture of pork offal- liver, lungs, spleen etc.
FalafelChickpeas, onion, garlic, parsley, coriander, cumin, salt, flour, pepper mixed and made into patties, deep fried and commonly served with pita bread.
FarfalleBow-shaped pasta.
FeculaCommon name for starch that has been made more or less pure by washing in water instead of flour or farina; which contains protein and other substances from the origin plant.
Common starches like tapioca are fecula.
FesenjanStew contain Persian poultry or meatballs, with pomegranate juice and walnuts.
FetaA Greek cheese. Traditionally made from either a mixture of the milk of goat and sheep, or exclusively from sheep’s milk. It’s formed in large blocks and then salted and sliced; and salted again before it is packed in containers. The containers help the cheese mature, for a month in the salty whey.
FibreThe indigestible constitute of food. The most important of these are roughage, which is mostly carbohydrates.
Figgy puddingA pudding made by baking or steaming figs, apples, carrots, breadcrumbs, flour, butter, eggs and brown sugar.
Fines herbesMixture of chopped fresh culinary herbs; French.
Finger limeFruit found in the shrub found in the rainforests of North-East Australia. A part of the citrus family; these fruits are cylindrical shape at about 6 centimetres long, and happen to remain green ever after ripening.
FisnoggeJewish calf’s foot jelly.
Five grains of ChinaThe ‘five grains’ are:
Chi (setaria millet); Shu (panicum millet); Tao (rice); Mai (wheat and barley); Shu (legumes)
Five spiceStar anise, fennel, cloves, cassia (Chinese cinnamon) and Sichuan pepper mixed to form a ground spice mixture
FlanA pastry with an open crust, or a sponge case with a filling that could be sweet or savoury
Floating islandA dessert made of an ‘island’ that is a round, baked meringue that is ‘flat’, on a ‘sea’ of custard
FlorentineA dish containing spinach.
FlummerySoaking fine oatmeal in water for a length of time, and stirring it while boiling until the liquid has almost been solidified
FocacciaA flat bread topped with different herbs
Foie grasGoose or duck liver pate
FondantA mixture of sugar, water and glucose boiled to the texture of a soft-ball.
FondueFrench for melted; Swiss dish made from melted cheese.
Foo-FooWidely used as the name for a starchy paste. Popular in West Africa, it can be made from any fibrous vegetable.Foo-Foo is made from Yam, Plantain, Cassava, Taro, Sweet Potato or Maize.
FoolA blend of mashed fruits that may be raw or cooked accordingly, and whipped cream.
FourmeFrench for mould (the shape); appearing as the name of some cheese that are moulded to shape
FraiseA medieval term for something in the nature of a pancake that has a batter which is fried
FrangipaneA custard tart flavoured with ground almond and pistachio.
Freekeh (Arabic)Roasted green wheat, a specialty of Arab countries.
French breadMade mainly with soft wheat. It’s drier as a result of lesser water absorption, and is less raised. French bread is not meant to be buttered
Friandises (French)Word meaning delicacy. Usually a small confectionary or a little cake that is served after a meal; commonly with coffee, meant to be eaten with the fingers
FricandeauSlices of meat fried or braised with a sauce.
FricasséeA light, white stew that can be vegetarian or non-vegetarian
Frigate mackerel Member of the Tuna Family; Also known as “bullet mackerel”
FritterFood item coated in batter and deep fried.
Fromage fraisA smooth, light, white cheese, that is slightly fermented with varying fat content.
FrumentyWheat porridge, the word is of classical Latin origin, Frumentum meaning corn.
FudgeA sweetmeat made from sugar, milk and butter, that is boiled to a soft ball texture and beaten up. Grainy in texture
FuguJapanese delicacy, name for some species of blowfish.
FumetReduction of cooking liquor of fish or vegetable stock.
FunnelA conical device ideal to transfer large amount of liquids to smaller containers, to avoid spillage
FattoushCubed cucumber, tomato, iceberg, onion and herbs with vinaigrette
FrybreadCooking in hot fat.
FatAny cooking medium like ghee, butter and the hydrogenated oils.
FIFOFirst in First out
FejioadaSliced meats with a platter with side dishes of beans, rice, kale, etc
FrijolesBeans
FajitasCut of meat into strips
FlautasStuffed, rolled deep fried tortillas.
GarnishTo decorate the food
GlutenA tough elastic protein that gives dough its strength and ability to retain gas.
GrateTo rub food on a grater and thus break it into tiny pieces.
GribhicheCold sauce made with chopped hard boiled eggs, herbs, onion & capers.
GazpachoGazpacho is a soup made of raw blended vegetables and served cold, originating from the southern Spanish region.
GaletteA cake made with potatoes/ rice.
GnocchiItalian dumplings made of flour, potato & egg
GrapefruitVery similar to sweetlime, having bitter juice.
Gonkura/GonguraTall plant whose leaves are used for chutney & curry.
Gulab JamunKhoya & paneer dumplings deep fried till dark brown and soaked in sugar syrup.
GurJaggery
GhantoVegetables chopped or grated with phoron and other ground spices.
GalaktobourekoPhyllo stuffed with custard sauce and topped with a light honey/sugar syrup
GardumbaLamb intestines rolled into a sausage
GlykismataDesserts
GiouvetsiGreek casserole or baked in the oven
GyroSeasoned slices of meat seasoned served in pita sandwich form along with tomatoes and onions.
GelatoItalian Ice Cream usually prepared from egg based custard using whole milk or cream.
Grappastrong digestive wine
GraterA grater is a kitchen utensil with sharp perforations. Different sized grating slots are useful in preparing a variety of dishes
Grill panA heavy metal pan used to grill foods.
Garlic pressKitchen equipment that crushes garlic optimally by pushing them through a small mesh of holes. A more efficient alternative to mincing garlic with a knife, and also retains the oil
Glace de viandeFrench for ‘meat’ and Glace means ‘to glaze’, so the term Glace de viande means glaze the meat
Gugelhupf PanWhite pan with round bottom and decorative pattern on the sides
GlazeA polished finish given to dishes by coating with syrup
GratinateGrilling under the dry heat
GriddleCooking on Heavy cooking surface.
GrillCooking in open fire.
Glace To coat with a thin layer or sugar syrup
GrateReducing to small pieces.
GravyDeriving juice from vegetables during and after cooking.
GrindTo rub something until it becomes powder (eg. in the mixer)

Glutinous rice Sweet, sticky, or waxy rice; broad, short grains in white, brown, or black
GuacamoleFresh salsa made from avocados, chopped tomatoes, sour cream, lime juice and peppers.
HardebroodTwo layered dry flatbread. Each layer is as thick as a pancake, and is connected at the dents.
HallullaStaple in Chilean sandwiches, a flat round bread baked with fat.
HardtackA basic cracker or biscuit made with flour and water.
HimbashaFlavored with ground cardamom, a slightly sweet bread.
HoecakeMade from white or yellow cornmeal and mixing it with salt and hot water or milk. The cornmeal gruel is fried, and sometimes sweetened.
HushpuppyDeep fried or baked corn meal dough dumplings.
HaloumiMade from sheep’s milk, a semi soft and not very salty cheese.
Horiatiko PosmiBread made from cornmeal and whole meal flour.
HandiAn Indian cooking utensil. Primarily made of brass with a tin coating, the handi has a narrow neck with a base that is wider than the neck
HummusLevantine dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic
MutableFried eggplant dish made with tomatoes, garlic, olive oil, cumin, paprika and parsley
HearthThis is the flour of the deck oven.
Haute cuisineMeans superior cooking, the finest quality of food served in an elegant and elaborate manner
Hickory woodKing of barbeque wood that is strong and hearty; perfect for pork shoulder and ribs; enhances any red meat or poultry.
Hors d'oeuvreAppetizers; small savory tidbits hot or cold, meant as starters.
HACCPHazard Analysis Critical control Point
HojasDried cornhusk used as a raping for tamales.
HuevoEggs
HuachinangoRed snapper
HominyMaize treated with lye
InfusionSteeping into aromatic liquid.
Idi-appamFine noodle of a mash of rice grits.
IdliA round, white, steamed cake, made from rice grit & urad dal, ground together and kept overnight for fermentation.
IdiappamStrings of rice flour served with coconut milk/kormas/gravy curry/chutneys.
Insalata mistawild young lettuce leaves of different shapes and colors topped with a vinaigrette dressing
IcingProcess of covering with sugar or the coating itself.
JohnnycakeFried cornmeal gruel, made from white or yellow cornmeal mixed with salt and hot water or milk, and sometimes sweetened.
JusRoast gravy diluting with water or wine
Juniper BerriesBluish black aromatic berries found dried and are bitter to eat raw.
JambuRose-apple.
JowarType of grain like wheat.
JhalLightly fried meat, tossed with a light sauce of ground chillies, mustard and panchphoran.
JholMeat prepared in a stew kind of preparation and served with rice.
JholiGravy made from curd and is thick in consistency.
JicamaRoot vegetable.
JamaicaRed hibiscus flower for flavouring.
KugelhupfYeast dough, soft in texture. Contains raisin, almonds, kirschwasser cherry brandy, some dough also with candied fruits, sometimes filled often with layer of sweetened ground poppy seeds.
Kalamata OlivesAlmond shaped Greek olives
KahwaAromatic Kashmir tea with cardamoms and almonds brewed in a samovar.
KarelaBitter Gourd
KesarSaffron
KadhiSpiced and diluted curd mixed with besan. Sometimes deep fried pulse ball added.
KhandSugar in the form of large crystals, also called misri.
KhandsariWhite or dark brown rosk sugar or Khand.
Khas KhasPoppy seed
KheemaMinced meat (lamb or chicken)
KhoyaDried, concentrated milk
KulfiAn ice cream made of condensed milk, dried nuts and saffron
KuzhambuA gravy dish that has vegetables and/or lentil, spices, with or without coconut milk.
KaliaVegetables, meat and fish made using onion paste, ginger garlic paste, tomato puree and garam masala cooked in a lot of oil and ghee.
KassaMeat, first grilled with spices like onion, ginger, garlic, chilli powder, turmeric powder and cumin powder, and then put into a thick gravy.
KormaCooking meat or chicken in a mild yoghurt based sauce and ghee.
KafuliThick gravy made from green leafy vegetables.
KadaifShredded dough stuffed with chopped nuts and cinnamon and tossed in honey/sugar syrup
KaridopitaAlmond and walnut dark cake topped with light honey/sugar syrup
KasseriFarm cheese, creamy in texture.
KefalotyriA mild cheese made from sheep’s or cows milk.
KefteidakiaFried beef meatball
KolokithokeftedesZucchini fritters
Kolokithia gemistaGreekZucchini full of ground beef, rice and avgolemono sauce
Kopanisti Mykonou (Greek)Salty and spicy cheese made from cow or sheep’s milk or made by using both.
KotosoupaChicken soup topped with a creamy lemon sauce.
KoulourakiaGolden colour crisp, cookies coated with sesame seeds
Kounoupidi TiganitoBatter fried Cauliflower
Kourabiedesbutter cookies tossed with powdered sugar
KremithosoupaA clear onion soup
Kitchen shearsScissors that are intended to be used in cooking processes like to trim the fat from poultry and meat, to snip herbs, to cut dry fruits, etc
KadaiAn iron utensil of Indian origin resembling a wok. Used to cook food with minimal water, or ideally to deep fry as well
KneidlachDumplings
KneadWork the mixture in dough.
KOT Kitchen Order Ticket
Kosher MeatsSlaughtered to comply with religious laws, where the animals must be killed with a single stroke of a knife and then fully bled. All the veins and arteries must be removed from the meat
LoinA joint of lamb, veal, pork or mutton that includes some of the ribs.
LadduIndian sweet made with thick jaggery or sugar syrup.
LitchiSpiny red fruit with sweet pulpy aril.
LoquatYellow-orange fruit, popular in China & Japan.
LesuMadua flour stuffed in dough made from wheat flour, and a lot of ghee is applied to it while serving.
Lachanodolmades Cabbage leaves filled with beef, rice and served with avgolemono sauce
LoukoumadesDeep-fried honey balls topped with honey.
LoutzoukaxiaVariation on lentils.
LadleA type of spoon used to serve. A long handle and a deep cup shaped bowl makes it ideal to use to serve soups, stews and sauces
Loaf PanA narrow rectangular mould or tray, used to bake breads and meatloaves.
LIFOLast In first out
Lime creamSour cream.
MantouMilled wheat flour, water and leavening agents made into a bread.
MarkookA flatbread baked in a dome or a convex metal griddle.
MarraquetaMade with flour, salt, water and yeast, commonly found in Chile.
MatzoA Jewish tradition during the passover holidays where they consume this unleavened bread.
MelonpanBread that looks like a rock melon, with a n enriched with a layer of crisp cookie dough.
MichettaA hollow or bulgy Italian white bread.
Monkey breadCinnamon sprinkled soft bread
MuffinA quick bread, similar to cupcakes.
Massa SovadaRound shaped bread combining milk, sugar or honey
Muscovite duckA breed of duck
MagretBoneless duck breast, cooked rare like a steak with the skin along with fat still attached.
MorelMushrooms having a honeycomb design with conical cap typically very strong in flavor, sold dry.
Morel DustA powder obtained from ground morels
MahashaliBuddhist era’s pulpy quality rice.
MahuaTree whose fruits contain high sugar level, used for alcohol production
MakkiCoarsely ground flour of Maize.
MasoorPink color lentils
MattarGreen Peas
MeenTamil term of Fish
MelogaraA savoury of various lentils and vegetables
Misti DolSweet Yoghurt from Bengal.
MollieCoconut flavored thin fish curry from Kerala.
MurahbbaFruits prepared with spiced, thick sugar syrup and preserved.
MulligatawnyLentil based soup in the style of Indian cooking
MungGreen gram lentils
Murmura/MuriPuffed rice.
MurukkuSouth Indian crisp coil shaped snacks made from rice & lentils
MuttonGoat Meat
Mysore PakSweet made with ghee and thick sugar syrup with Roasted Bengal gram flour.
Maze/MezzoSnacks or appetizer in
Masala VadaLentils, onion, green chillies, fresh coriander leaves and garlic ground tossed together into fritters and deep fried
MurukkusSnacks shaped as spiral fried rice dough that can be eaten along with tea/coffee
Madua ki RotiChapatti or roti made from a cereal called Madua.
ManouriMade from sheep's or goat's milk whey, a soft unsalted cheese.
MarathopsomoFennel flavoured bread
MaridesFried white bait
MelitzanosalataEgg plant purée
MezethesSmall savory appetizers
MizithraSoft and hard varieties of food; made from sheep's or goat's milk whey
Moussakka Layers of variety of vegetables tossed with concasse, grilled eggplant, tomato puree and cheese
Melizana papoutsakaEggplant stuffed with ground beef with tomato sauce and cheese
Minestronetomato based vegetable and pasta soup
Monte Biancodessert consisting of chestnut purée, cream and Strega
MortadellaBig portion of smooth textured sausage made from pork, fats and spices.
Mixing bowlA deep bowl that is used to mix ingredients together; with high sides to avoid splattering and spilling in the process.
Measuring SpoonsSpoons of various sizes which are used to measure small amounts of ingredients. Universally used sizes are the tablespoon and the teaspoon
Meat thermometerUsed to measure the internal temperature of meat and poultry especially in dishes like steaks and roast. One of the more reliable ways of knowing the level to which the food has been cooked
MasherUsed for mashing food items such as boiled potatoes.
Muslin clothUnbleached cotton yarns loosely woven together, used to strain finely.
Mortar & pestleThe mortar is a deep, heavy bowl with rounded edges; that avoids spilling while pounding with the pestle, that is a heavy club shaped object, with the head being used to crush or pound herbs and spices, to release the flavor from them
Meat malletA handy tool used to tenderize the meet by pounding the surface.
Melon BallerSimilar to a scooper for ice cream, A melon baller takes the flesh of a melon to form perfect balls
MutableFried eggplant dish made with tomatoes, garlic, olive oil, cumin, paprika and parsley
MaizDried corn
Mandoline cutterSlicer with adjustable lever for different thicknesses. It is used to cut slices of various thicknesses, juliennes, gaufrettes and batonnet
Maple WoodMildly smokey and sweet wood for poultry, ham, and vegetables.
Mesquite wood A wood with a smoke that turns from tangy to bitter over an extended cooking time.
MarmiteFrench dish or earthenware covered pot
Monkey DishRumoured to be a bowl the size a monkey would use or originally made from a monkey's skull or a shallow bowl the size of a monkey's hand
MSGMono Sodium Glutamate
Molocajete and TojoloteMexican mortar and pestle made from heavy black basalt.
Masa Corn dough used for tortillas, tamales and other dishes. Corn kernals cooked with lime and pounded in a stone grinder
MoleSalsa made from a paste of chilies, peppers, pimentos, avocados, chocolates and other ingredients
NgomeGround millet, water and vegetable oil made to form a flatbread.
NicoiseIn the style of Nice (France).
NageA highly flavored, concentrated fish stock
NisiotikiA vegetable and sea food soup
NozzleApplying or filling pulp or cream to various shapes with the help of a conical tool with a variety of shaped tips like star, ribbed or plain ones
NachosCrispy fried corn chips.
NopalesPrickly pear cactus.
Organic FoodFood created without the help of any chemicals including synthetic fertilizer, pesticide or germicide.
OrzoSmall melon seed-shaped pasta
OuzoGreek
Anise flavoured colorless alcoholic drink.
Ombre biancoglass of white wine
Ombre rossoglass of red wine
Osso Buccoan Italian dish made of shin of veal, tossed with wine, garlic, onion and tomato
Organic FoodNaturally grown food. Grown without using fertilizers, pesticides herbicides, hormones and medication or antibiotics, and are stored without using any chemicals or preservatives
Oak woodThe most versatile of hardwoods; blends with a wide range of flavours.
Puran PoliA sweet flatbread filled with chickpea lentil. Cooked in a griddle and served with a butter or ghee garnish.
Pain de mieA sliced, packaged bread
Pan de PascuaA sweet bread, spongy in texture. Contains ginger, honey, candied fruits alongside raisings and nuts. A Christmas tradition.
PanbriocheSimilar to brioche
PancakeMade from starched base butter, a thin round flatbread.
PandesalA round bread made with flour, eggs, yeast, sugar and salt
PandoroAn Italian tradition, sweet yeast bread served with Vanilla icing sugar.
Pane di AltamuraMade from durum flour
Pane ticineseBread dough made of white flour, yeast, salt, oil and water
PanettoneA round fruitcake leavened with yeast, and baked in a tubular mould to give it height.
PanfocacciaSimilar to focaccia.
PapadumServed with a meal or as an appetizer,  Thin and crisp, similar to a cracker.
PeniaMade from sugar, butter, eggs, anise seeds and lemons.
PiadinaWhite flour, lard or olive oil made to form a thin bread.
PotbroodBaked in a cast iron pot with wood coals, Potbrood is made with wheat flour and sweetcorn.
PretzelAlemannic knot-shaped bread, soft or hard.
ProjaSmall muffins or loaves of cornbread
PuftaloonTraditionally made from frying in dripping a dough of flour, salt, butter and milk.
PumpernickelSlightly sweet rye bread made from coarsely ground rye.
PecorinoAn Italian cheese made with sheep’s milk; aged, white to pale yellow and have a sharp flavor. Its American counterpart is made from Goat’s milk.
PanchphoronFenugreek seed, nigella seed, cumin seed, black mustard seed and fennel seed in equal quantity.
PapdiCrispy deep-fried wafers made from refined flour, cumin and fenugreek.
ParchingGrain drenched in water, baked in hot sand and pounding it in a mortar to make it flat.
ParwalTender spherical gourd.
PhalsaA small, sour, purplish berry.
PoliA sweet; pan fried pancakes stuffed with moong dal (lentils) paste & jaggery.
PongalSweet or savoury, rice and moong dal (lentils)
PrasadFood, first offered to God, then served to others
PaniyaramIndian dish made by steaming a rice flour and lentil batter using a mould.
PuttuSteamed rice flour in an especially made cylindrical mould
PoriyalDry sautéed vegetables, tossed with mustard seeds, curry leaves, black gram dal and coconut.
PappadamFried, round disks made with black gram or rice flour
PayasamSweet, made with rice and/or lentils, milk, sugar or jaggery.
PhoronTempering to flavor lentils.
PoraVegetables are burnt over direct fire, mixed with oil and spices.
Pasta FloraLattice-topped tart filled with apricot purée
PastitsioFlat pasta with ground meat, cheese, macaroni; covered with béchamel sauce.
PatatosalataPotato salad
PilafiRice boiled in broth and flavored with spices
PsariFish
Psomi Me Rigani Oregano feta bread, cut into thick slices, brushed with olive oil and grilled.
Piatto mistoPlate with a selection of hors d'oeuvres
Pinot grigioDry white wine
PizzaiolaFresh tomato sauce tossed with different herbs.
PolentaCorn Meal Paste
Pollo SorpresaBreast of chicken, stuffed with garlic butter, covered with breadcrumbs, rolled and deep-fried
PrimaveraVegetable sauce prepared with broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, peas and mushrooms - accompaniment for pasta
Prosciuttoraw cured Italian ham which is air-dried, pressed, and sold thinly sliced
Proseccoglistening appetitive dry or medium sweet wine
Paring knifeA sharp knife with a short blade, commonly used to remove the skins of fruits and vegetables
Pot holdersPot holders are made of cloth or silicone that are used to lift and handle hot pots, pans and dishes
Potato peeler A sharp blade with one side serrated. Ideally used to peel the outer skin of potatoes and, other gifts
Pizza wheel A rotating circular metal blade with a handle. Used to roll along a pizza to cut it.
Parisienne scoopAnother name for a melon baller, used to make perfect balls out of fruits, vegetables and Ice Cream
PhaanuIt is made from lentils and soaked in water for about 4 to 6 hours before cooking.
Pate MaisonFrench term. “Maison” means ‘house’, a dish made in restaurant own style.
PincersA tool made of two pieces of metal with blunt concave jaws that are arranged like the blades of scissors, used for gripping and pulling things
Pecan woodA mellow version of hickory with a subtle richness of character
ParboilTo cook partially in a hot liquid
ParcookTo cook partially
Pan BroilCooking in a dry heat (vessel)
PoachTo cook in a moderately hot liquid (80 deg. C)
Paring Removing skin of fruit and vegetables.
PureeMass of pulp of vegetables or fruit boiled and passed through a sieve.
ProveAllowing dough to rise until it has increased its bulk to twice of the original size by putting in a warm place.
PFAPrevention of food Adulteration
PozolePork and hominy dish.
PanBread
PescadosFish and shell fish.
PostreDesserts
PiloncilloCoarse sugar.
PipianPumpkin seed.
PlantanasBanana like fruit.
Quick breadLeavened with ingredients other than yeast.
QuinoaSmall, round, ivory colored grain, which swells to four times its size and looks like a tiny disk with a C-shaped tail when cooked.
Queso FrescoA Mexican soft white crumbly cheese made from cow's milk.
Rice breadMade from rice flour.
RugbreadMade of rye and wheat flour or contains up to 1/3 whole rye grains
RoeEgg of fish
RagoutA strongly seasoned dish of small pieces of meat stewed with vegetables.
Red wine treacleStrong flavoured thick syrup made from reducing red wine.
RelishSweet and sour mix of fruits or vegetables frequently used as a garnish or condiment
RouileTraditional addition of fish stew
RagiFinger millet. .
RaisinBunch of grapes hung in a dark room and dried naturally.
RaithaBeaten curd mix with chopped vegetables
RajahKidney Beans
RasamA mixture of lentils, cumin seeds, tamarind, pepper corns, tomato and curry leaves made into a soupy texture.
RasogollaIndian dessert made from cottage cheese, dried milk solid (Khoya) and soaked in sugar syrup.
RawaGrits of wheat
ReconstituteRestoring to liquid state by any kind of thin liqui; Reheating frozen prepared food.
RehydrateTo soak a food substance in water, and thus restore the water lost during drying.
RasamBroth made with tamarind juice, cumin and pepper.
RusKumaun region dish made with Dal stock.
RavaniGolden yellow semolina cake topped with a light sugar/honey or different flavored syrup.
RetsinaWhite or rose wine flavored with pine resin
RizogaloRice pudding with a dash of cinnamon on top
Risotto di pesceRice with seafood; Rice with cuttlefish stewed in its ink, local favorite   
Rubber scraperMade of rubber, is used to scrape out or remove food from the sides of bowls, pans, jars, spoons etc
Rolling PinA long cylindrical device that is used to roll out and flatten dough.
RegionaleFrench for dishes belonging to particular region and made in a set style.
RamekinsShallow earthenware dishes where single portion dishes are baked and to mould chilled desserts
ReduceTo cook and reduce
RoastTo cook food by surrounding by hot air.
RamekinsSingle portion dishes served through shallow earthenware
RefritosRe-fried beans.
SpeckendickA pancake made with rye between two iron plates, filled with lard or bacon, and dried sausage and syrup.
SiftTo put dry ingredients through a sieve.
SlurryA lump-free consistency made by whipping cornstarch or flour into cold water or other liquids
StirTo mix two or more ingredients in circular motion.
Salsa VerdeGreen sauce. A sauce made of green herbs and seasoning
Sea SaltSalt produced by evaporating sea water.
Squid InkThe liquid obtain from squid
StridingInserting
SquashEdible gourd which can be cooked and served as a vegetable.
SaffronDried stigmas of crocus flowers, collected by hand, one at a time.
SamovarSpouted copper or silver urn, used for brewing tea or coffee
SapotaSweet, brown globular fruit
SarsonMustard seeds
SattuRoasted Bengal gram flour.
SaunfFennel seeds.
SattvikModest food that the body needs
SeviyanVermicelli
ShrikhandSweetened hung curd garnished with saffron and cardamom.
ShuktoBengali Mixed vegetarian dish, bitter in taste, comprising of several veggies, including bitter gourd or neem leaves
SigdiA small portable iron stove with charcoal or wood as the fuel.
SinghadaWater crop also known as Paniphal.
SitaphalCustard apple. A round, green knobbly fruit having many black seeds covered with custard.
SingalAnother sweet item which is made using semolina. It is a popular sweet and is usually made during festivals.
SingodiSweet wrapped in a Malu leaf and made from a mixture of khoya and coconut.
Sisunaak SaagDish made from green leafy vegetables.
SaganakiFried Kasseri cheese
SkordaliaGarlic sauce
SouvlakiaSkewered food
SoutzoukakaiBeef meatballs baked in the oven
SpanakopitaPhyllo pastries sheets stuffed with spinach, feta cheese, egg, onion, olive oil , butter and bread crumbs
SaluteItalian toast
SaltimboccaLiterally "jump in the mouth". A dish entailing rolled pieces of veal or poultry cooked with herbs, bacon, and other flavourings
SavoiardiLady Finger shaped cookies which are the base for many Italian sweets
SoffrittoMade from fried vegetables which is the base for many soups
StromboilA kind of stuffed pizza in which the sauce pours from the dough similar to the flow of lava from the top of the Stomboil Volcano in Southern Italy
StracciatellaClear chicken soup
SabayonDessert made of whipped eggs, sugar and wine

Salpicona mixture of finely diced vegetables or meat
SautéLiterally means to "jump". The act of tossing food in a pan
SautéuseA shallow pan with sloping sides

SautoirA round shallow heavy pan with straight walls & long handle

SorbetFlavored Iced water, served between to large courses of meals.

Sous Chef Second chef, next to the Executive chef in a hierarchy 

SupremeBreast of chicken
StrainerSimilar to a colander, used to separate solid and liquid foods. The holes or perforations on a strainer are a lot smaller in size compared to a colander. They have a crisscross pattern in metal or plastic to hold food of finer texture while draining the liquid.
Slotted SpoonsA slotted spoon is a spoon or ladle with holes or gaps in it. Intended to be used when a solid food is being scooped out of a container, having the liquid portion remaining behind
Silicon scrapeA silicon scrape resembles a flatter spoon, used to scrape out food from bowl, pans, jars, etc
SkilletA frying pan with a flat bottom; used to fry foods or brown them. Usually 8 to 12 inches in diameter, the low sides flare out and ends in a long handle
Sauce PanA deep saucepan with a flat bottom, a round base and straight sides. Ideally used to heat sauces and cook food like rice, pasta and soups on a cook top
Steamer basketUsed to steam cook food such as rice or fillet of fish
ScraperUsed to scrape food and others off a table or a vessel, also can be used to split bread and pasta dough
SkewersThin long rods that are pointed at the end, used to hold small pieces of food. Their flat or squared shape avoids spinning of the food. Ideal for barbecues or tandoori dishes, and are available in metal or wood materials
SaccharometerMeasure the desserts of liquid and sugar concentration
SaccharimeterMeasures sugar concentration, the name comes from Greek words Sakcharum (Sugar) and metron (measure)
SwissingSwissing is a type of braising, where food is repeatedly dredged in the flour and pounded till it is tender
Shallow FryTo cook in little fat.
SauteTo stir fry quickly in a small amount of fat.
SearTo brown the surface quickly on high heat
SimmerTo cook food gently in a moderately bubbling liquid
SweatTo cook food with or without covering in fat.
Steam To cook in steam of boiling water.
StewTo cook or simmer slowly for a long time in a covered pan.
Strain To separate liquids from solids through sieve etc.
Salsa Referred to as different sauce that are made in Mexican kitchen.
Salsa FrescaReferred to all salsas made from chopped uncooked fresh vegetables
TaftanBaked in a clay oven, Leavened flour mixed with saffron and a trace of cardamom powder.
Tiger breadMade as a white bread loaf or a bread roll, usually garnished with sesame oil and rice paste prior to baking.
TamarindA sour fruit widely used in Asian cooking
TejpatBay leaf in Hindi
TiffinA light evening snacks or morning breakfast
ToddyFermented sweet sap of Tar or Palmyra palm
ThawTo let frozen food become warmer until it is ready to cook
TossTo mix ingredients
TruffleVariety of white or black mushrooms with strong flavour.
TartSweet or savoury open-faced pie
TapenadeThick, pungent paste usually made from different ingredients.
TzatzikiDip churned from yoghurt, cucumber and garlic and served with pita bread.
ThattaiThese are deep fried disks of rice flour-based dough
ThechwaniMade from radish or potato.
TahiniCrushed sesame seed paste
TaramosalataFish roe spread
TaramaFish roe from mullet
TrahanaTomato based soup with tiny sour dough balls in it
TiropitaFilo filled with various layers of feta cheese and egg
Tomatorizo Me Garides Keorkos Prawns tossed with tomato rice and saffron.
TyriaGreek cheeses
TiramisuA favorite Italian dessert made with cream, coffee and Amaretto
TonnatoCreamy tuna and anchovy sauce
TortonLiqueur flavoured ice cream
Table d' hoteDenotes the set menu at a fixed price

TerrineAn earthenware casserole; also used to refer a food item
TournedosA small steak from the center of the tenderloin

Trancher To carve or slice a food item 

TruffleA black fungus which grows underground.

TongsTongs are part of kitchen equipment, to hold and/or lift hot foods, and to rotate it with care and precision
TurnerIt is a wooden or metal spatula that is used to turn or flip foods.
TaboulehBroken wheat and parsley salad with a little mint
Tangri kababDrumsticks of Chicken tossed in egg, yoghurt, spices and cashew nut mixture and roasted in Tandoor
Table d’hôte menusFixed menus usually served for a particular meal or a particular occasion.
TortillasFlat bread made of corn flour
TostadesHuge bowl shaped deep fat fried tortilla shells.
TamalesMasda Harina tortillas with lard.
TacosHand held snack, folded fried corn tortillas with fillings.
TomatillasGreen tomatoes with husk.
UradBlack Gram
ViergeOlive oil based sauce made with onion, garlic, tomatoes, fresh basil & coriander leaves.
VealMeat of the calf up to one year old
VinaigretteMade by mixing oil with something acidic such as vinegar or lemon juice.
VadaDeep fried black gram lentil cakes.
VaruvalA dry deep-fried dish (chicken, fish or sautéed vegetables) with onions and spices
VelouteBlonde roux thickened white stock of chicken, fish, or veal.
Vol-au-ventPuff pastry in a shell in which prepared food items are served

VSOPVery superior old peg
VDQSVins Delimite de Qualite Superieure
White breadBread made from wheat flour.
Whole wheat breadBread that is made with flour that is majorly or entirely made from whole wheat grains.
WadiAlso known as bati or bari, it is an Urad dal batter fermented for overnight, made in small shapes and sun dried.
WheyA thin white liquid; the byproduct of yoghurt and milk while making butter or cheese.
WhipTo beat rapidly in order to increase volume by combining air.
Wire WhiskNumerous metal wires joined coiled and joined together to a narrow, long handle. Best used to beat egg whites into meringues and whipped cream
WokRound bottomed kitchen utensil with deep slanting sides.
WhipTo beat rapidly until frothy and thick.
WACSWorld Association of Chefs Societies
YufkaWheat flour, water and table salt used to make thin unleavened bread that is round in shape.
YeastRaising dough using fungus cells
Yerba BuenaSpear mint.
ZopfBraided swiss bread with a dough made combining white flour, milk, egg, butter and yeast.
ZwiebackSweetened bread made with eggs, Baked twice to give it it’s crispy texture.
Zakat(Islamic word) “Giving” in the literal sense, here used for eating in a same plate and sharing food with others.
ZabaioneA creamy dessert made with marsala, sugar and egg
ZestThe outer rind of citrus fruit

ZesterA stainless steel head with five holes. Designed to remove fine shavings of a citrus zest, when it is dragged along the surface of the fruit
ZakuskiNamed after Chef Zakuski. As per this Russian food, hot and cold savouries are served before meals

About the Author
Dr. Chef Soundar

Dr. Chef Soundar

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Dr. Chef P Soundararajan is Corporate Executive Chef at Club Mahindra Holidays & Resorts. He Writes about Culinary Techniques and Shares his Profound Knowledge here in his Blog. [Read More….]

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